FinalExamRMBoxes - RM BOX Study Guide: Experimental...

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RM BOX Study Guide: Experimental hypothesis : any new prediction made by an investigator Null hypothesis : alternative to the experimental hypothesis; always predicts experimental is not true The burden of proof falls on the scientist who makes a new prediction. Scientists never prove the null hypothesis; they only fail to reject it. Frequency distribution : a way of arranging data according to the frequencies of different scores Mean : arithmetic average of distribution of scores Measures of central tendency : single scores that summarize and describe a frequency distribution Median : midpoint Mode : most frequent score Range : simple measure of variability that includes lowest and highest scores Variance : differences from mean are squared before added together Standard deviation : square root of variance; distance from mean Standard scores : created by subtracting each score in a frequency distribution from mean and dividing difference by standard deviation Z scores : allows us to readily compare or combine scores from different frequency Correlational study : relation between 2 factors is studied systematically Correlation coefficient: # that allows range between -1&1; more correlated when higher absolute value Positive correlations : .01 to 1; as one # gets bigger, other # gets bigger Negative correlations : -1 to -.01; as one gets bigger, the other gets smaller Reverse causality : causation could be operating in opposite direction Third variable problem : correlation between any 2 variables could be explained by their joint relation with some unmeasured factor Two factors are more strongly correlated when a correlation coefficient has a high absolute value, regardless of sign Correlation does not equal causation Advantages of correlational studies over experiments: Can be used to study many real life circumstances Can be conducted with far fewer practical or ethical concerns
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Linkage analysis : one method to find genes Genetic linkage : studies focus on families that have multiple members effected with the disorder Medelian disorders
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2011 for the course PSYCH 270 taught by Professor Chang during the Winter '07 term at University of Michigan.

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FinalExamRMBoxes - RM BOX Study Guide: Experimental...

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