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L5TopDownShort - Lecture Outline Issues(a Expectation...

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Lecture Outline Lecture Outline Issues: (a) Expectation effects on perception (b) Context effects on perception (c) Theory of top-down processing 1. Types of top-down effects 2. Bias effects Signals vs. noise, sensitivity, bias, payoffs, examples 3. Environmental context effects Non-meaningful stimuli, meaningful stimuli 4. Theory of top-down processing 4.1. Word superiority effect 4.2. Interactive activation model
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Pattern Recognition Pattern Recognition Top-Down Processing Top-Down Processing Food! Food! Pet! Pet!
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Definitions Definitions Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing Top ” refers to areas of brain responsible for higher- level cognition. Examples: goal setting, decision- making, language, memory. Bottom ” refers to lower-level areas of brain that receive input from sensation. Examples: vision, audition. Top-Down processing refers to processing that originates in higher cognition and proceeds downwards towards sensation. Bottom-Up processing refers to processing that originates in sensory areas and proceeds upwards towards areas responsible for higher cognition.
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Top-down processing: 3 types Top-down processing: 3 types 1. Expectation/Bias 2. Context 3. Higher levels of analysis that affect lower ones
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1. Expectation/Bias 1. Expectation/Bias Your own expectations or biases can affect the way you perceive something. What are some examples?
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Signal Detection Signal Detection A frequently encountered task: Detecting a tumor on an x-ray Looking for a particular exit on the highway. In General: detecting some “signal” in the presence of noise/distractions. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) addresses how we make these detection decisions. Demonstrates how expectations/biases (top- down influences) effect perception.
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Signal Detection: some concepts Signal Detection: some concepts Signal: something in the environment you are trying to detect. Noise: things in environment other than the signal. time Signal + noise noise Activity
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Signal Detection: some concepts Signal Detection: some concepts Sensitivity: how easy/difficult it is to discriminate signal from noise. time Signal + noise noise Activity
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Good (high) sensitivity Good (high) sensitivity trial Signal + noise noise Yes No Signal + noise noise Signal + noise noise 1 2 3 4 5 6
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Poor (low) sensitivity Poor (low) sensitivity trial Signal + noise noise Signal + noise noise Signal + noise noise 1 2 3 4 5 6 Yes No
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