midterm review - final copy

Midterm review- - Week 1 Key Concepts 1 social constructionism vs essentialism nature vs nurture two theories about how sex gender and sexuality

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Week 1 Key Concepts 1. social constructionism vs. essentialism nature vs. nurture two theories about how sex, gender, and sexuality are related (1) essentialist theory (nature): sex (male/female) is a biological given that determines gender (boy/girl) and (hetero)sexuality babies born with vaginas are girls and will naturally become women and desire men; babies born with penises are boys and will naturally become men and desire women the universal “facts of life” there’s nothing to explain except why some people (homosexuals, transgenders, intersex) don’t fit in four major proponents: (1) American popular belief (2) religious belief (3) political ideologies (4) evolutionary biology (2) social construction theory (nurture): sex (maleness/femaleness) is a biological substrate that, by itself, determines nothing biological sex is used by people as a building block of culture most social scientists and historians hold this theory evidence for social construction (1) biology – the brain is the most important sexual organ (2) primatology – the study of humans, apes, and monkeys bonobos share with us a partial divorce of sex from reproduction (3) history (4) anthropology
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2. sex vs. gender sex: the biological substrate (1) chromosomes (2) hormones (3) external and internal reproductive organs gender: the cultural system of symbols associated with, not caused by, sex difference o usually assigned at birth on the basis of external genitals o not dichotomous our culture only recognizes two, but other cultures don’t among Plains Indians, a person could attain gender reassignment through a vision at the beginning of puberty and become a “two spirit” 3. gender dysphoria when one’s gender identity does not agree with his or her assignment can be expressed in transvestism or transsexualism 4. transvestism wearing the clothing of the opposite gender 5. transsexualism gender reassignment possible through hormone treatment and surgery sex (reproductive function) cannot be changed, but gender can be 6. intersexed
Background image of page 2
formally called hermaphrodites about 1 in 1000 babies are intersexed creates a crisis for doctors and families gender is assigned ( attribution ) and surgery alters the body to resemble the biological sex of that gender 7. sexuality symbols in any form (actions, fantasies, artwork, games, music, ads) that are associated with and are supposed to lead, in any given culture, to genital arousal all symbols, including sexual symbols, are location-specific one must always take the context and audience into account 8. sexual orientation enduring desires that affect a person’s fundamental identity heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, sadomasochist, fetishist, etc. Readings
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 01/18/2011 for the course SOC 344 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

Page1 / 57

Midterm review- - Week 1 Key Concepts 1 social constructionism vs essentialism nature vs nurture two theories about how sex gender and sexuality

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online