Anthrbio 364_Study Questions Part II

Anthrbio 364_Study Questions Part II - Anthrbio 364:...

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Anthrbio 364: Nutrition and Evolution Fall 2007 Study Questions: Part II Quest for Energy 1. What is the relationship between calories derived from food and heat calories? Calorie – the amount of heat necessary to raise one liter of water from 15 to 16 degrees 2. Define Calories and calories. What are the six essential nutrients and what is the calorie content of each? One Calorie = 1000 calories Six essential nutrients i. Proteins ii. Lipids iii. Carbs iv. Minerals v. Vitamins vi. Water 3. To extract 200 Calories from nutrients how much is it necessary to consume? 4. What is the difference between direct and indirect calorimetry? 5. Define Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). 6. What is the difference Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and Resting metabolic rate (RMR) 7. Define Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), Obligatory thermogenesis, Facultative thermogenesis, and Physical activity ratio (PAR). Obligatory thermogenesis – unavoidable energy cost associated with absorption and transport of nutrients Facultative Thermogenesis – varies from individual to individual – it is influenced by the kilocalorie conent of the meal itself – individuals previous nutritional history of food shortage and differences in expontaneous activity (fidgeting) 8. List 3 factors that influence 24-hr energy expenditure. 9. Estimate the resting daily energy expenditure, irrespective of the level of physical activity, for the cases given below using the equations of Schofield given in table I.6. Note REE values are expressed as Kcal/kg/ day. Gender Wt, kg Ht, m Age REE kg cm or m years Kcal/kg/day Female 135 165 20 --------- Female 36 141 10 --------- Female 165 160 70 --------- Male 155 175 20 --------- Male 36 141 10 --------- Male 170 165 70 --------- 10. Give two factors that my account for differences between the REEs calculated above. 11. How can you measure the proportion of carbohydrate and fat that is person is metabolizing while under resting conditions? 12. On the average, what proportion of REE energy expenditure is derived from body protein? 13. Why do you think REE expenditure before and after breakfast would be different? 13. Why do you think REE expenditure before and after exercise would be different? 14. On the average,
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Anthrbio 364_Study Questions Part II - Anthrbio 364:...

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