Exam 2 lecture notes - Lecture Notes 3/3 Digestion Starts...

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Lecture Notes 3/3 Digestion Starts in mouth 4 nutrients carbohydrates- 4 calories in a carb; carbs are easier to digest, our body does not work as much to get these 4 calories o refined and non refined o glucose- simple sugar; easiest to assimilate o diff types of complex carbs o fructose- fruits o sucrose: sugar cane o dependent on type, you can absorb 100%--chocolate bar has two types of sugar proteins lipids fat- 9 calories stomach is only a chamber for fermentation separate large and small molecules no absorption breaks down cellulose of some plant foods, but most of us don’t have the enzymes capable of breaking down cellulose if you only eat plant foods, wont get fat
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appendix no longer useful hydrochloric acid: works on food pressing in stomach; function is to separate, cause fermentation, of food pressing in the stomach. If you don’t have breakfast, acid can have a powerful effect, if it has no food to work on, it will work on own tissues, and ulcers are consequence Ex) Bulimia: throwing up food context with hydrochloric acid can damage mouth Carbs: function is to provide energy Simple carbs: monosaccharides—simplest sugar; don’t have that many molecules, most easy to digest Disaccharides- two simple sugars attached Polysaccharides Runners store carbs the night before on the assumption that they will use them the next day Milk has fructose and galactose polysaccharides: we cant break down fiber but polysaccharides contain fiber; hard to break down, expend more energy white and whole wheat give you same calories, but gain more weight form white because has no fiber so easier to digest whole wheat implies a lot of molecules that aren’t separated yet more fiber you eat, the less the risk of colon cancer because: quicker movement of food coming out to excretion the shorter amt of time food stays in digestive system, the less chances they will affect your digestive system; reduces amount of time from mouth to excretion and actions of carcinogens on your body
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proteins are the bricks, carbs are the castle of our system nothing functions without proteins high quality protein: 9 essential amino acids low quality protein: missing some of the essential amino acids we need more protein! 3/5 Fats and Lipids: If you don’t have fat, you don’t have enough energy storage Natural selection has favored the ability of some individuals to store more fat than others Women are able to store more fat than males Ability to store fat made possible the survival of human species Carry vitamins Water soluble vitamins: dissolve in water in the body Many people get undernourished if they don’t have enough fats—vitamins Dietary fat: the one we eat all the time; can be converted into fatty acids Fatty acid: chain of C atoms with H attached that has an acid group COOH at one
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Exam 2 lecture notes - Lecture Notes 3/3 Digestion Starts...

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