Review Sheet for Psych 260 Midterm 9703

Review Sheet for Psych 260 Midterm 9703 - Review Sheet for...

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Review Sheet for Psych 260 Midterm: CHAPTER ONE: Introduction  Key terms: Time and Studies Motion:  procedures in which work tasks are broken down into  simple component movements and the movements timed to develop a more  efficient method for performing the tasks Scientific Management:  begun by Fredrick Taylor, a method of using scientific  principles to improve the efficiency and productivity of jobs Hawthorne Effect : changes in behavior occurring as a function of participants’  knowledge that they are being observed and their expectations concerning their  role as research participants  Human Relations Movement : a movement based on the studies of Elton Mayo  that emphasizes the importance of social factors influencing work performance  Organizational Downsizing : a strategy of reducing an organizations workforce  to improve organizational efficiency and/or competitiveness  CHAPTER TWO: Perception and Learning  Key terms:  Social Perception:  the process of combining, integrating, and interpreting  information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them  Attribution:  the process through which individuals attempt to determine the  causes behind others’ behaviors Personal Identity:  the characteristics that define a particular individual Social Identity:  who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in  various social groups Social identity theory:  a conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive  others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics and our  membership in various groups Correspondent Inferences:  judgments about people’s dispositions, their traits  and characteristics, that correspond to what we have  observed of their actions 
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Internal Causes of Behavior:  explanations based on actions for which the  individual is responsible  External Causes of Behavior:  explanations based on actions over which the  individual has no control Kelley’s Theory of Casual Attribution:  the approach suggesting that people  will believe others’ actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on  three types of information: o Consensus:  information regarding the extent to which other people  behave in the same manner as the person we’re judging  o Consistency:  information regarding the extent to which the person we’re  judging acts the same way at other times o Distinctiveness:  information regarding the extent to which a person  behaves in the same manner in other contexts  Perceptual Biases:  predispositions that people have to misperceive others in  various ways.  o Fundamental Attribution Effect: 
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2011 for the course PYSCH 260 taught by Professor Lee,fiona during the Winter '09 term at University of Michigan.

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Review Sheet for Psych 260 Midterm 9703 - Review Sheet for...

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