Sociology Review Sheet Second Midterm

Sociology Review Sheet Second Midterm - Sociology Review...

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Sociology Review Sheet – Second Midterm : DEVIANCE and CRIME: Deviance is - The violation of social norms; breaking rules and laws - A biological or personality trait of individuals - As conferred by audiences - As formal property of social situations and social structures - As resulting from group membership Definitions : 1. Retribution - the punishment should fit the crime. 2. Social protection - restrict offenders so they can’t commit further crimes. 3. Rehabilitation - return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens. 4. Deterrence - reduce criminal activity through a fear of punishment. 5. Socialization – it teaches cultural values 6. Inequality – it privileges some groups at the expense of others Deviance in psychology: - blames the deviant behaviors on individual personality - Medicalization of Deviance : interpret deviance as a result of pathology of sickness - Solution is to cure the deviant through psychological treatment Deviance in Sociology: Society and Crime : The sociological definition of deviance stresses social context, not individual behavior. Deviance and Culture : The sociological definition of deviance recognizes that not all behaviors are judged similarly by all groups. Deviance and Power : Understanding what society sees as deviant also requires understanding the context that determines who has the power to judge some behaviors as deviant and others not. Social Construction of Deviance : The sociological definition of deviance recognizes that established rules and norms are socially created, not just morally decreed or individually imposed. Functionalist Theory of Deviance : - Deviance tends to stabilize society - By defining some forms of behavior as deviant, people are affirming the social norms of groups. - Societies need deviance to know what the normal behavior is and should be - Deviance produces strong social solidarity - Deviance is society’s way to integrate and socialize people into social norms.
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Durkheim’s Suicide Theory : Egoistic suicide: occurs when people feel totally detached from society. That is, there is a low degree of solidarity or social integration in society. Altruistic suicide: occurs when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces. That is, when there is a very high degree of solidarity or integration in society. Anomic suicide: occurs when the disintegrating forces in the society make individuals feel lost or alone. There is little or no “society.” Anomie is the condition that exists when social regulations in a society break down; the controlling influences of society are no longer effective, and people exist in a state of relative normlessness. Hirshi’s Social Control Theory
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Sociology Review Sheet Second Midterm - Sociology Review...

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