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World history - History 1 l 12 I The Industrial Revolution...

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Unformatted text preview: History 1 l 12 I. The Industrial Revolution 1. The most profound transformation in human history 2. The conversion from handicraft to machine production 3. Pre—conditions for industrialization A. Empire and industry B. The internal conditions of the United Kingdom C. Agriculture D. The state and the economy 4. Industrialization involved four innovations 5. Cotton textile industry 6. The problem of energy 7. James Watt ( 1736—1819) and the steam engine 8. British iron production 9. Railroads 10. Great Britain, the Industrial Workshop of the world ll.The human results of industrialization A. The labor of proletarians B. The “ people’s charter” ( the Chartists) C. “ Luddites” H. Industrialization led to development of ideologies l. Liberalism 2. Democracy 3. Nationalism 4. Socialism 5. Karl Marx( 1818—1833) 6. Frederick Engels ( 1820-1895) 7. The Communist Manifesto ( 1848) 8. Imperialism III. Nationalism in Germany The German states 1. Prussia 2. Austria 3. Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire and reduced the German states to 36 8. 9. . The Germans rebelled not only against the Napoleonic rule but against the century old ascendancy of French civilization . The Congress of Vienna ( 1815) . Prince Metternich (1773-1859), the architect of France’s containment and of the concert of Europe, kept Prussia subordinated to his own Austria. The 1848 Revolution stirred strong nationalism in Germany The hOpe of united Germany was quickly dashed “Great Germany” 10. “Little Germany” 1. 2. 3. 4. 9. IV. Otto Van Bismarck (1815-1898) and the unification of Germany King William I of Prussia appointed Bismarck Chief Minister in 1862 Bismarck ranks among the greatest heroes of German history National interest of Prussian state He disliked liberalism . “ Iron and blood” The Diet The Reichstag . Bismarck had contempt for Emperor Napoleon III ( 1852-1870) of France Three victorious wars A. The war against Denmark 1864 B. The war against Austria 1866 C. The war against France 1870 10.The Reich, (the German Empire) ll.France was humiliated and lost Alsace and Lorraine 12.Triple Alliance ( 1882) 13.He declared universal male suffrage in Germany in 1871 l4.Bismarck domesticated socialist politicians 15.The Social Democratic Party of Germany( 1875) l6.The beginning of social security l7.The doctrine of Realpolitik 18.German unity and power was achieved at the expense of liberal constitutionalism and political freedom Baltic Sea Prussia before 1866 Conquered by Prussia in Austro—Prussian War, 1866 l:l Austrian territories excluded irorn fl North German Confederation, 186-7 ‘. Joined with PruSSia to form . North German'Confederatien, 158,67, .. - - . \-~’ r~~ South German states joining wi . Prussia to form German Empire, 1871- 51} Major battle A - é: —- German Confederation boundary, 18154866 ’ Won by Prussia in Franco—Prussian War, 1871 /. “/2 m Bismarck's German Empire, 1871 l figs»: ' a . \ i t \ © Cengage Learning :%.:MA'P"2?.23:I Unification ofGermany, 1866—1871 Germany was united after a series of short, successful wars by the kingdom of Prussia against Austria in 1866 and against France in 1871. The Meiji Restoration and the Modernization ofjapan, 1868—1894 Meiji Restoration The punt]. The c1v11 war was intense but brief. In 1868 provincial rebels overthrew the Tokugawa Shogu- cal program that fgjjowed mate and declared young emperor Mutsuhito (moo-tsoo-HE-toe) (r. 18684912) “restored.“ The the destruction of the Toku- new leaders called their regime the “Meiji {MAY-gee) Restoration" after Mutsuhito’s reign name gawa Shogunate in 1353, in (Meiji means "eniightened rule”). The "Meiji oligarchs," as the new rulers were known, were which a collection of young extraordinarily talented and far-sighted. Determined to protect their country from Western leaders set Japan on the imperialism, they encouraged its transformation into "a rich country with a strong army" with path of centralization, indus- world—class industries. Though imposed from above, the Meiji Restoration marked as profound trialization, and imperialism. a change as the French‘Revolution {see Map 27.3). ...
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