History 1112 Songhay

History 1112 Songhay - History 1112 The Songhay Empire of...

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Unformatted text preview: History 1112 The Songhay Empire of West Africa 1464-1600 I. Sunni Ali ( 1464-1492) 1. A great warrior 2. Created the empire of Songhay 3. Focused on economic development 4. Allowed the Portuguese to establish a trading factory II. Askiya Muhammad( 1492-1528) the Great 1. An able general and administrator 2. A scholar 3. Between 1497—1498, he went on a lavish pilgrimage to hdecca 4. A lover of justice 5. He encouraged economic development of the Songhay empire 6. A merchant prince 7. In two respects he was far ahead of his time 8. He was a man of vision 9. The greatest leader 10. Intellectual life of Songhay ll. Songhay towns A. Timbuktu , the intellectual center i. Sankore University ii. Ahmad Baba, a brilliant scholar B. J enne C. Gao the political capitol 12. In 1528 Askiya the Great was removed from power by three of his sons III. The conflict between Morocco and. Songhay 1. Economic causes of the conflict _2. Sultan Mansur of Morocco 3. Askiya Ishaq II( 1588-1591) 4. The Battle of Tondibi, 1591 5. The consequences of the Battle OfTondibi History 1112 I. The Atlantic slave trade A. Forms of slavery 1. Domestic slavery 2. Chattel slavery 3. Plantation slavery _ B. Origin of black slavery in the New World 1. The Indians 2. Indentured servants 3. Convicts 4. Bishop Bartolome de las Casas ‘s letter of 1510 to the emperor of Spain 5. Enslavement of Africans was legalized 6. The Mediterranean roots of plantation slavery 7. Portuguese sugar production on several islands in the Atlantic Ocean 8. African domestic slavery 9. Preconditions for the success of plantation economy in the New World 11. The English involvement in the Atlantic slave trade 1. John Lok( 1553) 2. John Hawkins ( 1562) 3. The impact of the triangular trade on British commerce A. The growth of port cities B. Lloyd of London C. David and Alexander Barclay 4. The impact of the triangular trade on British commerce A. The growth of arms industry B. The growth of other industries III. The decline and abolition of British slave trade 7. 8. 9. IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. . The Industrial Revolution . The attack on slavery and mercantilism . The Quakers . Publication of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations 1776) . The American Independence destroyed the system of mercantilism & monopoly and discredited the old regime. . The slave resistance The British slave trade was abolished in 1807 On paper the US. slave trade was abolished in 1808 The British abolished slavery in 1833. The effects of the Atlantic slave trade on Africa. It increased warfare It left behind mainly female society It coincided with the gun trade Loss of labor force . Decline in industrial and agricultural productivity . It was an under develOping factor . It caused intellectual stagnation . It retarded west African technological progress . It was mainly one sided trade Harlow, England - London - New-York - Boston o Tokyo - Seoul - Taipei - San Francisco - Toronto - Syd New Deihi c Cape Town - nay - Singapore - Hong Kong Madrid - Mexico City - Amsterdam o Munich - Pan's - Milan h the 1, the 1 half avery t the tarm‘z’mrrmami'étowm. ».. s -.. Hid-2..» v: m ‘ mweummmzflwrmrxw it was also essential to the way local societies functioned. In the West, however slavery was to fade away and die. ! ity. In England, the widespread use of slaves was reflected in the Domesday Book of 1086, though by then it was clearly in decline. But in the course of that 500 and 1,000, it was really in the later Middle Ages that rural slavery declined markedly. Thereafter, European slavery was primarily domestic (and therefore female), wrth slaves from the eastern Mediterranean imported through major free peasantry. Until the mid-tWelfth century, European slavery was maintained by import- ing slaves. Equally, European slaves were transported to distant slave societies. Vikings, for example, attacked and captured peOple around their periphery, 28 Atlas of Slavery . from Britain, selling them on to distant slave markets, sometimes as far away as the Mediterranean. Viking slave rOutes took captives as far afield as Greenland and, by river and overland routes, to the Middle East and Central Asia. It was, overall, a blurred network Europe than in earlier epochs (Map 17). Slavery in medieval Europe was greatly affected by the rapid rise of Islam, which, from the eighth century onwards. spread into Europe, across the Middle East and North Africa, and deep into black Africa. Like Christianity, committed to the belief that it was wrong to enslave co~religionists, b expansion and .military successes enabled huge numbers of alien Christian) captives and prisoners of war to be enslaved. New Islamic states everywhere incorporated foreign slaves and relied on traders to bring slaves in, most strikingly perhaps in the form of female slavery and concubinage. In the process, Christian Europe found itself pitted against an expansionist Islam, and both sides enslaved the other (during the Crusades for example). Muslim power was finally removed from Spain only in 1492 — the year of Columbus’s first Islam was ut Islamic On the eve of their maritime adventur the Americas), European powers had [on slave routes. Although indigenous slavery had died out in Western Europe, the enslavement of others (more especially Muslims, and of Christians by Muslims) was common. Indeed, the persistent ( and at times wholesale) capture of Christian sailors and travellers by islamic powers in North Africa remained a persistent problem into the eighteenth century. the Mediterranean, where the develo linked to slavery in the region. At a pment of the local sugar industry was closely ‘ time when slavery had effectively vanished in northern Europe and had died out in other forms of Mediterranean agriculture, slaves were introduced into sugar cultivation. It is true that small-scale slavery survived in other areas of the Mediterranean on the galleys, in harems and in domestic service — but it was now, in addition, linked to sugar plantations. By the end of the sixteenth century, however, the European sweet tooth was to be .3 d £35 393552 We 3:332: cunt “SEW utzuzwbém .2: B QEK tufiax Eat bESm Swat .0 .3 @3ch 55.8.9 3 £595 E... Dom. a. Till wu_.,_.n... Dam o:m0*m_.ficmxm_( maummemn . fl European slavery and slave trades 29 a0 nuczcmficou cm 99: Q modem: arfitzfiii .fléhaauxh......§EE»EE4 w a... . hind Norld ter to : slaves ikings led as but it lation t, the 1 this, dieval Islam, fiddle n was lamic udlng states ' es in, n the ., and )ower 5 first 0 o \ 1.x \QWV: mu 3228. . m 0 0 £33 . y m 5%: Eamgxai [gamma—a ad .d U. m. ‘6. o m: comcoq _ “ V m dexllnt \iakn .nVJd mmmmm maoMimm rravhm“ min _ ..14:U.OS 98:23; H3?“ “850m .9332 $67. 55>. 2 Q2). Lture, Ivery 1d in :0 be 30 Atlas of Slavery satisfied by very different plantation workers: Africans toiling on. the planta— tions of the Americas. Yet a curious fact remains. With these exceptions in the Mediterranean, Europeans had effectively abandoned slavery at home at the very moment that they began to tum to slavery in their new-found lands in the Atlantic and in the Americas. 40 Atlas of Slavery .2 an: 2.5“ch 5:335 $58 .0 .m 52$: :EEfis 33. E2 2i. .L .m .0 JEEEUémEmBm “3?. 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History 1112 Songhay - History 1112 The Songhay Empire of...

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