Unformatted text preview: African Civilizations: From Kemet to Songhay
Kemet Ghana Mali Songhay Image Example of Africana Womanism Ankh versus the cross Isis, Osiris, Horus (Ausar, Auset, Heru) Father, Son, Holy Ghost Ancient Egypt (Kemet, KMT) Stereotypical Interpretations Who defines History (Afrocentricity revisited)? (Imhotep = scientist, architect, physician, medicine man/healer (considered first genius of the world) Book of the Coming forth by day and night (Book of Death connotation- removed from proper context) "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (John) "I am the Eternal, I am Ra...I am that which created the Word...I am the Word" (Book of Coming Forth by Day) Ra = Creator KMT cont. (Photo King Menes, Narmer, Aha) What race is he? What does KMT mean? (3150 BCE) Egypt invaded by Hyksos, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, British, and others from 1783 to present (miscegenation, cultural change over time 330 Pharaohs, 31 dynasties (refer to p 63-67) 4,160 miles long World's longest waterway Irrigates 2,800,000 acres in Sudan (7,600,000 acres in Egypt) White Nile = comes from "Nyanza" (renamed Lake Victoria in 1858 by John Speke) Constitutes Upper Egypt versus Lower Egypt Blue Nile = from Lake Tana in Ethiopia (provides silt which contains valuable mineral resources- fertilizer) provides 70% of Nile Source of life versus source of death and destruction (Mummy example) Interpretation of History (Objectivity narrative re-visited and the Afrocentricity debate) Nile Valley Kemetic Civilization 4236 BCE = Dated use of a 1,460 year old astronomical calendar 3150 = Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt and establishes Memphis as the capital (key error and western interpretation- water as life) Old Kingdom (2649-2150 BCE) = dates when Great Pyramids were built Great Pyramids = Primacy function was to be architectural and spiritual centerpieces for the king's mortuary complexes 1783 BCE = Invasion of the Hyksos and use of Hebrew slaves (approximately 450 years) Ma'at = Term that represents the Egyptian divine force for harmony and order (ankh) as it also expressed the ideal of benevolence and just rule of the king as a divine being (justice and righteousness). Most important civil servants were scribes, surveyors, and tax collectors Egyptian civilization sustained over time due to religious cohesion, geographical location (Sahara desert), favorable natural resources, and social stratification Ghana, Mali, and Songhay Dates = 400-1224 ACE (700-1075 = Golden Age) People = Soninke, Soso/Susu, Mande (Sundiata) Capital = Kumbi-Saleh (traders), Wangara (royalty) Resources = gold, salt, silent trade Gold = Ancient Ghana had access to gold mines of Southern Ghana and salt mines in Sahara Desert Salt = food preservation, perspiration, food, medicine Silent Trade = trading partners did not speak about anything Efficient Military = 200,000 (60,000 bow persons) Ghanian King (Sumanguru) = utilized Muslim traders and commercial opportunities (forbade conversion to Islam) Overthrown by Sundiata (Malinke) in 1224 Ghana Mali Dates = 1200-1500 People = Malinke,Mende, Mossi (Sundiata, Mansa Musa) Key Cities = Jenne, Timbuktu, Gao Characteristics = 1. Larger than Ghana 2. Ruled by Manding 3. 1ST West African state to render Islam as official religion Renowned for Gold, education, justice, security (had impressive navy/between 200 and 2,000 ships), and Islamic piety Islam = (5 tenets- Shahada/Submission, Salat/Prayer, Zakat/Alms, Ramadan/Purification/Fasting, Hajj/Mecca), Jihad, value of commerce/trade/military/schools in Islamic spread Mansa Musa = incredibly wealthy (made renowned Hajj), recruited top Muslim scholars, students, Italian mapmakers reputed him as wealthiest in the world (1324 map), access to gold, so much gold given to Egypt that its value dropped for 12 years Decline = Rapid disintegration, too big to manage Captured by Songhay in 1473 Songhay Dates = 1350-1600 People = Do, Sorko, Gow (Sonni Suleyman, Sonni Ali, Muhammad Toure) Key Cities = Gao, Kukiya Characteristics = Sophisticated, bureaucratic (various hierarchies and ministries operating under a central bureaucracy), highly centralized, Islam was an urban religion and never penetrated countryside, kings were flexible in relation to conversation why? (1. Most farming products were cultivated in countryside 2. King is doubly the spiritual and physical protector) Songhay featured internal clashes on Islam (Sonni Ali the Great/anti-Islam, Muhammad Toure/pro-Islam) Invaded by Morocco causing its collapse (desire for gold) These civilizations debunk myth of a Dark Continent ...
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- Spring '10
- Ancient Egypt, Nile, Songhay, Ghana Mali Songhay, Egypt Blue Nile