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Unformatted text preview: Africana Religion
Religion in Africa Religion in the Caribbean Religion in the United States Traditional African Religion Common Western Misconceptions (why Africa was regarded as pagan) No Sacred Book (Bible, Qu'ran) No missionaries (need for dualism -truth and essence of life in contrast to a synthesizing of all things) No Saints No Temples No representations of God No prophets No complex dogmas (set of principles) No specific days of worship (distrust of senses) Traditional African Religion African religion does not separate church, state, and everyday life No Art for Art sake analogy Africa is not a monolithic continent Misconception on Polytheism Common threads in Traditional African Religion 1 Supreme "God," Creator, or Higher Power (not gender specific Oludamare (Yoruba), Amma (Dogon) Creator as Imminent and Transcendent Common threads in Traditional African Religion cont. Ancestral veneration Similar to a saint or even Jesus Profound respect for life and nature "gods" example and clarification on polytheistic confusion (manifestation of god) Death is not the end but rather a transition to another phase (ancestor or in purgatory) Belief in individual and collective responsibility "Because we are, I am" Western vs. African community Contrasts Descartes' "I think therefore I am" Challenges facing Traditional African Religion Absence of missionary zeal Lack of an effort to religiously organize across ethnic groups Immediately problematic Eternal tolerance for other religions Assumption that education means all things western (abandonment of traditional values) Christianity in Africa Coptic Church (1st Century A.C.E.) Egypt appears in the Bible 740 times, Ethiopia/Kush (58 times), Africa (50 times), 2 Popes from Africa Portuguese influence (1400's1700's) and revitalization of Christianity Prestor John Queen Nzinga Challenge of training an indigenous clergy Edward Wilmot Blyden (Emigrationism) Christianity in Africa cont. Benefits of Missionaries Education (some African nationalists were products of their schools) Failures of Missionaries Use of white images and symbols Insensitivity to traditional ways of life (language and customs such as polygamy) Too many denominations Connection with colonialism African Christian Resistance African Inland Mission (1929) Religion in the Caribbean Cultural Syncretism Vodun (Voodoo) = Haiti (Bondye/Loasubordinate beings (Haiti) /Nana Buluku (Yoruba origins), Mawu- Lisa, moon/sun) Shango = Trinidad Macumba and Candomble = Brazil Santeria = Cuba Rastafari = Jamaica Religion in the United States Christian retentions seen in slave trade Names of Slave Ships included (Brotherhood, John the Baptist, Justice, Gift of God, Liberty, Jesus) Justification for slave trade Diversity among African American Christians Demonstrative, SemiDemonstrative, Liturgical Congregationalist, Episcopalian, Presbyterians Biblical Justification for slavery Curse of Ham Africans as pagan Abolitionist countered this model African American Christianity Richard Allen and the AME Church (1816) Largest African American Church in 19th Century due to anti-slavery initiatives (moral, economic, and social reform) James Varick and the AMEZ What did the choice of African rather than Negro, Black, Colored, American mean? George Liele and Andrew Bryan 1st Black Baptist Church (Silver Bluff Baptist Church- 1773) Silver Bluff Baptist Church & First African Baptist Church African American Christianity Major functions of the 19th & 20th century Black Christian Church Served as a place for social development Provided educational opportunities for blacks HBCU's Enhanced for their economic development Mutual aid societies Promoted and fought for their political emancipation Hiram Revels, Adam Clayton Powell, Jesse Jackson Visible and invisible churches Black Church during the Civil Rights Movement Became a church-based movement in origin and organization Controlled primarily by the Black community The CRM depended on financial support from the masses (generated largely through the church) Advocated direct, rather than legal action Birmingham `63 Adopted non-violent direct action, rooted in love and humanity Traditional Islam Islam = (5 tenetsShahada/ Submission, Salat/ Prayer, Zakat/Alms, Ramadan/ Purification/ Fasting, Hajj/Mecca) Nation of Islam Controversy on origin Noble Drew Ali (Moorish Science Temple 1913) W.D. Fard and his pilgrimage to Mecca Elijah Muhammad Members typically were young black males, southern migrants, and people from low-income black communities (exChristians) Nation of Islam cont. Values
Economic self-sufficiency Afrocentric conceptualization of Islam Mission countered doctrines of Eurocentric racism and white supremacy Believed most blacks were "Negroes" (pejorative term) in need of ideological guidance Black Nationalism Self-Defense Debate with Orthodox Islam (race, color, separation) ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course AAS 271 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.
- Spring '10