Unformatted text preview: PART V. IMPACT OF THE MEDIA
INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE MEDIA SYSTEMS Overview
Since the end of WWII, a driving force behind the global economy has been the establishment and expansion of the multinational corporation. The global business revolution of the past 20 years has also been a communication revolution centered on the worldwide diffusion of wireless and broadband technology. One result has been increased demands for freedom of expression, open political systems, and economic choice. Principal ways media of mass communication cross national boundaries
BY DESIGN global print media include general newspapers (e.g., USA Today International), financial publications (e.g., the international edition of the Wall Street Journal), and magazines (e.g., 50 international editions of Readers Digest) global broadcasting (e.g., Voice of America) international aftermarket for motion pictures and television programs produced in the U.S. BY UNAVOIDABLE CROSSBORDER SPILLOVER Radio and TV signals do not stop at borders. Most Canadians live within 100 miles of the U.S. border--within range of terrestrial U.S. radio and TV stations. Theories of media-government relationships within individual nations
A country's media system is directly related to its political system. All mediagovernment theories fall somewhere between control of expression (authoritarianism) freedom of expression (libertarianism) authoritarianismlibertarianism Authoritarian media systems were the first to emerge, following Henry VIII's harsh controls over printing in 16th century England. Authoritarianism assumes that individual citizens are incapable of governing themselves and must, therefore, be guided by a ruling elite (e.g., a king). High control of expression in authoritarian societies
16th century: England (focus on control of expression) 20th century: Soviet communist (focus on propaganda and national planning) Today: Developmental media theory (focus on education and national planning) Developmental media theory is decreasing in prevalence as many developing countries embrace democracy. Libertarian media systems are newer and grounded in the assumption that humans are rational and capable of governing themselves. A principal tenet of libertarian media systems is the free marketplace of ideas in which citizens have the right to hear multiple sides of an issue in order to distinguish for themselves truth and error. The free marketplace of ideas promotes a self righting process by which society remains balanced--neither tilting too far to one extreme or another--with the result being political stability. Low control of expression in libertarian societies pure libertarian (e.g., absence of government licensing in the U.S. for those who wish to publish books, magazines, or newspapers; or who wish to make films or sound recordings) social responsibility (e.g., FCC licensing criteria for those selected to operate U.S. radio and TV stations) The continuum of governmental control over the media of mass communication (Figure 18-1, p. 418 10th ed.) Ownership is another useful dimension in the comparison of media-government systems private ownership of domestic media (U.S. model) mix of private and public ownership of domestic media (British model, also adopted by Canada and Japan) public ownership of domestic media (communist model, also adopted by some developing countries) Typology from your textbook (Figure 18-2, p. 421, 10th ed.) decentralized represents libertarianism centralized represents authoritarianism public represents ownership by the government private represents ownership by individuals or corporations Cultural imperialism
In much of the developing world, nationalities are overwhelmed by the news and entertainment media of Western nations with mature media systems. Critics of Western media point to the way news originating in developing countries is presented to the developed world the erosion of national culture in developing countries via Western television programs and movies Comparative analysis
During this semester, we've learned much about how the media of mass communication are structured in the U.S. Comparative analysis of media systems allows us to view alternative ways of structuring mass communication. Important factors in comparative analysis include geography history and culture degree of political and economic freedom Some countries (including Spain, France, and Canada) have placed quotas on the amount of foreign programming that may be broadcast within their borders, with the hope of protecting local media industries and artists cultural independence Close to home: A glimpse at Canadian content (Cancon) rules Canadian broadcasting policy stipulates: Radio (and TV) frequencies are public property. Broadcast programming provides a public service essential to national identity and cultural sovereignty. In order to provide a wide range of programming that reflects Canadian attitudes, opinions, ideas, values, and artistic creativity, the Canadian broadcasting system requires certain percentages of Canadian talent in entertainment programming. Canadian TV stations must achieve a minimum of 60 percent Canadian content during the course of each calendar year. Canadian radio stations that air music in English must conform to MAPL.
Specifically, 35 percent of popular music in English broadcast on Canadian radio stations must meet the MAPL criteria (different rules apply for French programming). M (music): Composed entirely by a Canadian. A (artist): The music is, or the lyrics are, performed principally by a Canadian. P (production): The musical selection consists of a live performance that is recorded wholly in Canada, or performed wholly in Canada and broadcast live in Canada. L (lyrics): The lyrics are written entirely by a Canadian. Study the three sections in your textbook devoted to comparisons of media in: Japan Mexico China STOP! END OF LECTURE MATERIAL COVERED ON THE SIXTH EXAM! ...
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