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midterm review - Sara Winik PS 11 Midterm Review Sheet...

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Sara Winik 10/15/07 PS 11 Midterm Review Sheet Identifications: 527s: Unregulated political interest groups that focus on a specific cause of policy and attempt to influence voters. They are not allowed to advocate a particular candidate but can air ads about a cause and say how a candidate harmed/helped (sham issue ads). Result of ban on soft money because that money now goes to these groups. -name from tax code which established their legal status. Agenda Setting : Process of forming the list of issues the government is going to address. -President in state of union, proposed budget and special messages presents congress with program to consider. -interest groups ask congress to legislate on issue important to them (enviro) -current events problems (September 11=homeland security) Also in media, decide what topics to discuss and bring to public attention. As apposed to Framing which is how they talk about the issue and what to consider as well as certain Biased conclusions. “All deliberate Speed”: Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Four cases from the south which had segregated public schools and argued that separate but equal was unconstitutional under the equal protections clause (14 th amendment). Used doll test with black children to show damage. Brown v. BOE2 quote and put in hands of federal district judges who were immune to political pressure because they were not elected. Articles of Confederation: League of friendship between the 13 states created by the second continental congress. All power in a confederacy comes from states. States independent linked only for reasons such as defense. However could not govern under the articles because could not meet, raise money for war dept, could not agree on issues. -congress make peace, money, appoint army officers, post office, Indians -one vote per state -nine states must vote yes to pass any measure (all for amendment) Bandwagon Effect: Polls can create this effect because if voters read polls that show support for a candidate early on, more people will join the campaign, spend money and the public will begin to view that candidate in a more positive light. Barron V. Baltimore: Court ruled the Bill of Rights limited only national government (not states) from infringing on peoples’ rights and liberties. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act: (2003) Political money is now regulated by the federal government. No unlimited and unregulated (soft) money to parties and limits amount individual, business, interest groups and parties can give to candidate. Supposed to prevent any group or individual to have too much power over candidate who then feels
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he should pay person back when in office. Black Nationalism: African American two-dimensional ideology. Both believe white man wants to surpress Blacks and Africa is special homeland.
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