mid term - Part 1 5 Identifications Pain in Childbirth The...

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Part 1: 5 Identifications Pain in Childbirth: The English and colonists used the idea of feeling pain in childbirth as a way to distinguish between indigenous cultures and themselves. Through this idea, they were able to attribute otherness and inferiority to the new groups they encountered. The English and colonists believed in the biblical idea that Eve was cursed with feeling pain in childbirth and therefore all women should now feel pain as well. However, the Irish, Africans, and Native Americans such as the Algonquians did not feel pain when giving birth according to the English and Colonists’ experiences. These groups also had other different roles for females such as female political power within the Native American tradition. The US colonists adopted the idea of gender relations as a way to measure a culture’s worthiness. Therefore, the English and colonists justified their suppressing the indigenous groups by saying they were not Catholic and pure due to the different traditions they had regarding females. Instead, the females in the minority cultures represented the cultures overall inferiority and separated the indigenous cultures from the Europeans and then the Americans in the US. Trail of Tears: The Trail of tears was the forced expulsion of the Cherokee Indians and other Native American tribes by the US government in the 1830s and 1840s. The process first began under President Jackson with the Indian Removal Act. The United States wanted to move the Native Americans from East to West in order to take their land and use it to expand farming. Before the forced removal of the Cherokees, the Cherokees attempted acculturation by changing to the ideal US family structure in hopes of keeping their land. They adjusted their lifestyles by adopting patrilineal decent, took women out of tribal power, and created an individual farming system as opposed to collective property. However, the US still viewed the Indians as inferior and moved them West, which resulted in 4,000 deaths. The Trail of Tears is significant because it represents the idea that the Native Americans were not seen to possess the same familial values as the Americans. Despite attempts at taking on US customs, by the end of the migration, the Native Americans still were not able to live up to the US ideal and were seen as outsiders. Ideology of Domesticity: The ideology of Domesticity was prominent from 1865 through the era of imperialism. The ideology called for a change from the subsistence family farms where the entire family worked and lived on what they created. Instead, the new ideal was a breadwinner father who worked outside the home and provided for the family through time- disciplined work and a moral mother who guarded the morality of the husband and children. Children also no longer worked and instead were raised to be good future citizens.
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course AMCULT 397 taught by Professor Reginamortezsanchez during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.

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mid term - Part 1 5 Identifications Pain in Childbirth The...

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