two or more persons perceived as related because of their interactions,
membership in the same social category, or common fate.
how we feel about members of a group.
directed at them because of their group membership.
generalized beliefs about these groups.
Cognitive Sources of Prejudice-
people are lazy, how we think about the world affects
Morning & Night People-
morning people stereotype more at night, and night
people stereotype more in the morning.
beliefs come from our families and friends, the world around us,
advertisements, and TV. Stereotyping arises when we try to explain the associations and
patterns that we see in the world.
the classification of persons into groups on the basis of common
attributes. Makes us overestimate the differences between groups and underestimated the
differences within groups.
we categorize people (social categorization). We rely on
stereotypes when we are: pressed for time, preoccupied, tired, emotionally aroused, too
young to appreciate diversity. Prejudice requires racial categorization (us and them).
groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and
groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership,
belonging, or identity.
an organized system, or structure of cognitions about a stimulus, such as a
person, a personality type, a group, a role or an event. (self-schemas, person schema is a
Cognitive: attention, memory, and interpretations. Behavioral:
confirmation bias, self-fulfilling prophecies.
Perceived Similarities and Differences
-Out-group homogeneity effect
the tendency to assume that there is greater similarity
among members of out-groups than among members of in-groups.
-More likely to see diversity when the group is our own.
-More stereotyping of smaller and less powerful groups.
-Own-race bias: tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own
-Own-age bias- people more accurately recognize people similar to their own age.
-Focus on group membership before individual features.
Implicit Personality Theory-
networks of assumptions that people hold about the
relationships among traits and behaviors.
people who tend to see social groups as relatively fixed, static entities
and the borders between groups as relatively clear and rigid.
people who tend to see social groups as relatively dynamic and
changeable, with less consistency within groups and more malleability between groups.