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Unformatted text preview: IB35ac Class 6: Modern Human Origins What is the relationship between these earlier species of Homo and Homo sapiens? In this lecture I'll introduce you to some of the theories and the archaeological and fossil evidence. We'll also discuss what these early members of our own species were like, where did they live, how did they get there, and what their lives were like. Unilineal interpretation IB35 Human Biological Variation Class #6
Homo erectus Neanderthals Topic for today:
The origin & diaspora of Homo sapiens Modern Humans Skull of Homo Erectus found in Ethiopia Homo erectus Bodo Neanderthals Homo sapiens Gran Dolina Atapuerca, Spain 780kya Homo antecessor 1 Schningen, Germany Homo heidelbergensis La Sima de los Huesos Atapuerca ~400kya "The pit of bones" The Neanderthals
Earliest Krapina, E li t = K i Croatia (~130kya) Latest = Zafarraya in southeastern Spain (30kya) Earliest fossils of H. sapiens Herto, Ethiopia 160 kya Predate Neanderthals Morphology is intermediate between archaic and Late Pleistocene humans Probably represent the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans Africa after Herto In the Late Stone Age (35-8kya), three major human groups are recognized based on fossil remains Ancestors of the Khoisanids, who today live in y S. Africa West Africa group, who today live in the tropical forest and eastern and southern Africa Ancestors of modern Caucasoid populations in North Africa (20-7.5kya) 2 ->Millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the Bantu language group ->Developed novel methods of agriculture and metalworking ->Colonized new areas with widely varying ecologies in greater densities than hunting/foraging would have allowed Population numbers During the upper Paleolithic Africa was very populous until 6-7kya May have grown slowly to 50 million by the 16th century M t densely h bit d parts were agricultural Most d l habited t i lt l (Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya) >1500 AD growth slowed and came to a standstill (cause = slave trade?) (10 million people shipped to the Americas and 2.5 million to Arabia & Europe) The Bantu Expansion ~3kya West Asia / Middle East The Levant Qafzeh Cave, Israel (~95kya) burials of anatomically modern humans ->Flint tools associated with Homo neanderthalensis ->Dating to Middle Paleolithic West Asia / Middle East The Levant Qafzeh Cave, Israel (~95kya) burials of anatomically modern humans The Mousterian Kebara Cave (~60kya) Burial of an adult male 3 ->40-10kya ->Coincide with appearance of 'High' Culture ->Before advent of Agriculture ->Same as Late Stone Age Archaeology and fossils in Europe and West Asia The earliest sites: Europe (examples: Spain, England, Germany) West Asia: the Levant The Upper Paleolithic Blades Art Personal adornment Cave paintings p g Who was there: Homo sapiens (West Asia) Neandertals (West Asia & Europe) Their archaeology: The Mousterian (West Asia & Europe)
Chauvet Pont d'Arc Cave, France 31kya Lascaux Cave, France 17kya Who was in Europe next? Farming The megalithic people Horse domestication Asia, after H. erectus West Asia / the Middle East complex and intertwined with the Europe story The rest of Asia... Structures made of large stones Eg: Menhirs and Dolmens Indonesia Homo floresiensis Flores Island, Indonesia Adult 1m in height 380 380cc Evidence of endemic dwarfing H. erectus? H. sapiens? H. erectus H. floresiensis 4 Process and condition of the reduction in size of large animal - almost always mammals - when their gene pool is limited to a very small environment, primarily islands Island Dwarfing Australia & New Guinea Archaeology Lake Mungo (burials at 40kya) Multi-regionalism Models for the origin of H. sapiens: Candelabra
E. Euro ope Africa a Europ pe Maxillary incisor shoveling (upper incisor) Replacement (Out of Africa)
H. sapiens H. erectus Asia a TIME H. erectus Candelabra The evidence... Europe Anterior tooth size reduction Shortened retromolar space in the mandible Shape of mandibular foramen Candelabra Model Problems with this model: Evolutionarily unrealistic Argues for directionality in evolution 5 Multiregional Model Models we will discuss: No relationship Same thing, but evolving A continuum rather than a dichotomy... 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course IB 35AC taught by Professor Hlusko during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08