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Unformatted text preview: IB35ac Class 7: Modern Human diaspora, into the Americas Today we'll focus on how humans got into the Americas and how they've dispersed since, and why it matters for us today. You'll be introduced to the myth of the moundbuilders, NAGPRA, and how human origins affects on our politics past and present. IB35 Human Biological Variation Class #7 Evidence for Homo sapiens in the Old World
Ethiopia 160,000 years ago South Africa 90,000 years ago Israel 90,000 years ago Australia 40,000 years ago Asia* 35,000 years ago Europe* 32,000 years ago The diaspora of Homo sapiens Topic for today: Into the Americas Climatic data Archaeological data Fossil data Human Nonhuman Genetic data Language 1 9/16/2009 Geography Siberia Beringia Alaska Coastal corridor Interior corridor Climatic data Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) End of LGM By 24,000 years ago the ice sheets blocked the passage Coastal corridor deglaciated by 15,000 years ago Interior corridor deglaciated 14,000 years ago Archaeology: Siberian Arctic ~32,000 years ago Yana Rhinoceros Horn site Northwest Beringia (Yana River) & other sites in subarctic central Siberia and arctic i b i l Sib i d i European Russia Microblade stone tool technology This spread into the Arctic occurred during the relatively warm climate before the LGM Antarctic Island
Might be > 18,000 years ago Archaeology: Eastern Beringia Earliest evidence for human activity is Swan Point (dated to ~14,300 years ago) Microblade stone tool technology similar to Siberian sites evidence that the earliest Alaskans hunted bison, mammoth, ancient horses and migratory waterfowl Microblade culture (first seen in Siberia ~32,000 years ago) Pre-Clovis culture Clovis culture (13,200 12,800 years ago) 2 9/16/2009 Earliest site in North America Topper Site, Savannah River in South Carolina ~15,000 years ago (but charcoal fragments have been dated to 50,000 contaminant?) Weird stone tool technology controversial Earliest site in South America Monte Verde, Chile 14,600 years ago The Clovis Culture Archaeological culture south of the Canadian ice sheets 13,200 12,800 years ago Found in multiple regions around North di li l i d h America 14C (carbon) dates are indistinguishable, so they almost appear simultaneously Clovis stone tool technology Skeletal Evidence It's scarce... Earliest human remains in eastern Asia 39,000 36,000 years ago Kennewick Found along the Columbia River, Washington (1996) 14C dating puts the skeleton at ~9,000 years old Closest morphological match: the Ainu (a Japanese ethnic group) Stone projectile in the pelvis belonging to a technology dated between 5,0008,000 years ago Earliest human remains in Siberia Mal'ta (24,000 years ago) "Paleoamericans" Kennewick (Washington) Spirit Cave (Nevada) Lagoa Santa (Brazil) 3 9/16/2009 NAGPRA Native American Graves and Repatriation Act Federal law passed in 1990 provides a process for museums and Federal agencies to return certain Native American cultural items human return certain Native American cultural items human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony to lineal descendants, and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organiza only Federally recognized Native American tribes, Native Alaskan villages and corporations, and Native Hawaiian organizations may claim cultural items (~770) Spanish explorers and missionaries... Another more recently... What were early Homo sapiens like? Symbolism and art (from last class) Huntergatherers Modern day examples H d (H d b ' ) Hadza (Hadzabe'e) Northern Tanzania Inuit Canadian Arctic & subarctic When did we start to wear clothes? Three types of lice Head louse Body louse (clothes) Pubic louse (crotch) A REALLY, REALLY BIG DEAL Plant and animal domestication Genetic evidence: body louse evolved from the head house ~107,000 years ago Evidence from figurines 4 9/16/2009 Evolution of Technology Stone Age Paleolithic Lower (2.6 mya 100kya) Middle (300kya 30kya) pp ( y y ) Upper (45kya 10kya) They figured out how to smelt... Bronze age Earliest evidence ~5kya in north caucasus i th Mesolithic Neolithic (farming starts) Iron age Earliest evidence ~3kya in the near east, ancient Persia & India & Greece atalhyk
~10kya Turkey From : Relethford, page 435 Neolithic Revolution ->Pastoralism (agriculture) ->Transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course IB 35AC taught by Professor Hlusko during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08