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November 19, 2009 IB35ac Class 25: The study of head shape & intelligence, Part 2 Now we'll move back to the United States and get into that most controversial of topics, IQ. IB35 Human Biological Variation Class #25 Craniometry and anthropometry Samuel Morton Paul Broca (18241880) Topic for today:
The study of head shape & intelligence, Part 2 ->Advanced the science of cranial anthropometry ->Developed many new types of measuring instruments (craniometers) and numerical indices ->Originator of "American School" ethnography, a school of thought in antebellum American science ->Claimed the difference between humans was one of species rather than variety ->Generally seen as the origin of scientific racism ->Claimed that he could judge the intellectual capacity of a race by the skull size ->Large skull meant large brain and high intellectual capacity; Small skull indicated small brain and decreased intellectual capacity Alfred Binet Director of the Psychology Laboratory at the Sorbonne First studied head size as proxy for intelligence 1 1mm difference between diff b smart and stupid... Thought perhaps his measurement might be biased as well. Measurement error The Binet Scale 1904 commissioned by the minister of public education to develop techniques for identifying children whose lack of success in normal classrooms suggested the need for some form of gg special education The aim of the scale was to identify in order to help and improve, not to label in order to limit. No applicability to children who are doing fine. 18571911 **Essay Question** ->Critique and provide a more sound interpretation of provided data ->What is good science and bad science Intelligence Quotient Mental age divided by chronological age 1912 innovation added to Binet's measurement This is IQ as we know it This is IQ as we know it. Binet proclaimed that this couldn't be a measurement of intelligence because that is too complex to capture with a single number Intelligence is not a single scalable thing like height The hereditarian fallacy The equation of "heritable" with "inevitable" The confusion of within and betweengroup heredity American psychologists invented the hereditarian theory of IQ Reified Binet's scores Took them as measures of "intelligence" 1 11/18/2009 A word to know: Reification To convert a mental concept into a thing H. H. Goddard Unilinear classification of mental deficiency Scale from idiots to imbeciles to morons Most undesirable behaviors were tied to intelligence (link between intelligence and morality) " "...we have come to suspect all persons who are h t t ll h incapable of adapting themselves to their environment and living up to the conventions of society or acting sensibly, of being feebleminded" (1914) "How can there be such a thing as social equality with this wide range of mental capacity?" (1919) H. H. Goddard, cont'd. "Normal intelligence seems to be a unit character and transmitted in true Mendelian fashion" (1914) Morons were homozygous for the bad allele Morons were homozygous for the bad allele Laborers were heterozygous (just one bad allele) Don't let native morons breed and keep foreign ones out... Binet tests on immigrants Women judges on Ellis Island Tested four groups 83% of Jews 80% f H 80% of Hungarians i 79% of Italians 87% of Russians
feebleminded (below age 12 on the Binet Scale) "The results obtained by the foregoing evaluation of the data are so surprising and difficult of acceptance that they can hardly stand by themseleves as valid" (Goddard, 1917). The Test Drawing a design from memory Identify the missing part of the picture List as many words as you know in three minutes (11 year old children will give you about 200; i (
immigrants were giving about 60, even in their native tongue) A pioneer of hereditary IQ in America Robert M. Yerkes 1915 state of Psychology within academia Rigor and science = numbers and quantification ifi i Know the date and time RESULT: Deportations for mental deficiency increased 350% in 1913 and 570% in 1914 ->Studies with Chimpanzees and Orang Utangs 2 11/18/2009 Army Mental Tests Mobilization for World War I Test all the recruits Construct a baseline for intelligence testing Administered tests to 1.75 million recruits The Test Three types Army Alpha (for literate recruits) Army Beta (for illiterate recruits who failed alpha) l h ) A version of the Binet scales (for recruits who failed beta) The Results http://www.archive.org/details/armymentalte sts00yoakuoft A lot of data The average mental age for white men was just above 13 Mental ages 812 were considered "moron" The average Russian, Italian, and Polish man had a mental age between 11 34 10.74 a mental age between 11.34 10 74 Blacks had an average mental age of 10.41 Lighter skinned blacks scored highest 4,893 men took Beta after failing Alpha Alpha mental age = 10.775 Beta mental age = 12. 158 But what about those that didn't take the followup test? How would you have done? Crisco is a Patent medicine Disinfectant Toothpaste Food product Th The number of a Kaffir's legs is b f K ffi ' l i 2, 4, 6, or 8 Christy Mathewson is famous as a Writer Artist Baseball player comedian 3 11/18/2009 Other results that weren't emphasized Strong correlation between average score and hookworm infestation (parasites) Strong correlation (0.75) between test score and amount of schooling Test scores for foreign born recruits rose Test scores for foreignborn recruits rose consistently with years of residence in the US Ashley Montagu (1945) revisited these data Blacks from the north scored higher than those from the south High correlation between a state's expenditure for education and the average score of its recruits Social Implications Feeblemindedness is of much greater frequency than previously recognized Goddard: "...much of our effort to change conditions is unintelligent because we have not conditions is unintelligent because we have not understood the nature of the average man" President of Colgate University (Cutten, 1922): "We cannot conceive of any worse form of chaos than a real democracy in a population of average intelligence of a little over 13 years." C.C. Brigham, Princeton University 1923 "We have here an investigation which, of course, surpasses in reliability all preceding investigations, assembled and correlated, a hundred fold. These , army data constitute the first really significant contribution to the study of race differences in mental traits. They give us a scientific basis for our conclusions." "A Study of American Intelligence" (Brigham 1923) Yerkes foreward: "The author presents not theories or opinion but facts. It behooves us to consider their reliability and their meaning, for no one of us as a citizen d th i i f f iti can afford to ignore the menace of race deterioration or the evident relations of immigration to national progress and welfare." GIGO -> Garbage in, Garbage out Immigration Immigration restriction act of 1921 3% of immigrants from any nation then resident in America Immigration restriction act of 1924 2% of people from each nation recorded in the 1890 2% of people from each nation recorded in the 1890 census The quotas are estimated to have barred up to 6 million southern, central, and eastern Europeans between 1924 and the start of WWII. WWII 1890: southern and eastern Europeans arrived in relatively small numbers before then, but predominated after Calvin Coolidge, as he signed the 1924 bill said, "America must be kept American" 4 11/18/2009 Bringing it to today in psychology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ty6uGjxPh U0 And for amusement df http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrPb41hzY dw Microcephalics ->3 genes for larger brains undergone intense natural selection ->Allele frequencies differ for different populations 5 ...
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