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Unformatted text preview: November 24, 2009 IB35ac Class 26: Eugenics There is eugenics and then there is eugenics. We'll look at two different kinds and the history of the practice specifically within our own country. Then we'll discuss recent research on intelligence, especially intelligence as a complex trait. IB35 Human Biological Variation Class #26 Topic for today:
Eugenics & Definitions of Race Jean Baptiste de Lamarck 1744-1828, French Inheritance of acquired characteristics in the natural order of the universe, things tend to g become more complex this arises among living things from the special circumstances that species encounter Philosophic rather than scientific The test August Weismann, German 1834-1914 Germ line versus somatic cells ->Somatic cells do not function as agents of heredity ->Germ cells produce somatic cells, and more germ cells ->Germ cells are not affected by anything the somatic cells learn or any ability the body acquires during its life. ->Genetic information cannot pass from soma to germ plasm and on to the next generation ->Rules out Lamarck's IAC ->Historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics ->Uses statistics to analyze references to famous people, their statements, behavior and discoveries in relatively neutral texts Gregor Mendel Austria, 1822-1884 Studied inheritance in pea plants Two laws of inheritance First: principle of segregation Second: principle of independent assortment Francis Galton Positive eugenics Historiometry Twin studies Statistics Fingerprints ->Coined the phrase Eugenics ->Believed all characteristics were heritable ->Nature VS Nurture - Comparing twins to study the question
->Aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged ->Possible approaches include financial and political stimuli, targeted demographic analyses, in vitro fertilization, egg transplants, and cloning 1 ->Struggle for evolutionary survival applied to human social interactions What does "heritability" mean?
2 2 p = g + e2
Number of individuals s Roots of Social Darwinism Rev. Thomas R. Malthus British 1766-1834 Essays on the Principles of Population Population grows at an exponential rate but food only grows at a linear rate = misery h2 = 2 G 2 P Heritability = the proportion of the total variance that is attributable to the effects of genes height ->Non-genetic factors can affect heritability in diff populations ->Heritability calculations are population specific Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer, British 1820-1903 Misnomer ->Coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" Henry H. Goddard 1886 - 1957 "Normal intelligence seems to be a unit character and transmitted in true Mendelian fashion" (1914) Morons were homozygous for the bad allele Laborers were heterozygous (just one bad allele) ->Aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged ->Includes abortions, sterilization, and other methods of family planning Eugenics in America Negative eugenics The "unfit" 1710, biological interpretation Sterilization laws Buck versus Bell, 1927 The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness (1912) ->Offspring with "feeble-minded"barmaid ended up being feeble-minded ->Offspring with normal wife ended up being normal ->Suggested heritability of feeble-mindedness ->More plausible that poverty led to lower levels of measured intelligence 2 ->First compulsory sterilization law in US in Indiana in 1907
Vacesctomy Tubal ligation Buck v. Bell (1927) "Three generations of imbeciles are enough" stated Justice Oliver Holmes. In an 8 to 1 decision, the court legitimized Virginia's law on sterilization that was not repealed until 1974. ->Supreme Court ruling that upheld a statute instituting compulsory sterilization of the unfit, including the mentally retarded, "for the protection and health of the state" ->Largely seen as an endorsement of negative eugenics--the attempt to improve the human race by eliminating "defectives" from the gene pool Eugenics in America David Starr Jordan, 18511931 dysgenics American Breeder's Association American Genetics Association Committee on Eugenics Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1910-1939) Eugenics in America Harry H. Laughlin, 1880-1943 Immigration Acts of g 1921 and 1924 Study of factors producing the accumulation and perpetuation of defective or disadvantageous genes and traits in offspring in a particular population or species ->Testified that there were increased levels of insanity in southern and eastern Europe migrants ->Led to changes in immigration laws ->Works were popular in Nazi Germany The end of the eugenics movement WWII and politics Became associated with Nazism Seen as racist and bad science DNA from the beginning http://www.dnaftb.org/10/concept/index.ht ml Check out animation and then last video The scientific reasons
H Hermann J M ll (1890 1967) & th J. Muller (1890-1967) the study of fruit fly genetics 3 The end of the eugenics movement WWII and politics Became associated with Nazism Seen as racist and bad science The scientific reasons
H Hermann J M ll (1890 1967) & th J. Muller (1890-1967) the study of fruit fly genetics Mutations Behavior is a complex trait Mendelism & the persistence of recessive alleles http://www.dnaftb.org/14/concept/index.ht ml Video "did anything good come from the eugenics movement? movement?" But is this the end of the story? Berkeley's own: Arthur Jensen Educational psychology (now emeritus) Most controversial article:
1969 Harvard Educational Review, "How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement?" Level I versus Level II learning Some Recent Events
1994: "... despite decades of fashionable denial, the overriding and insistent truth about intellectual ability is that it is endowed unequally. ... Charles Murray explores the ways that low intelligence, independent of social, economic, or ethnic b k th i background, li at th root of d lies t the t f many of our social problems. He also discusses another taboo subject: that intelligence levels differ among ethnic groups. According to the authors, only by facing up to these differences can we accurately assess the nation's problems and make realistic plans to address them." book blurb by Simon & Schuster Huge academic controversy ->Level 1: Rote memorization ->Level 2: Conceptual Learning - Factor of general intelligence A more recent research report: J. Philippe Rushton & Arthur R. Jensen
2006 Psychological Science v. 17, p.921 The Pioneer Fund Established in 1937 in New York City "to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences" Average IQ scores by racial category 106 for East Asians 100 f whites for hit 85 for US blacks 70 for sub-Saharan Africans Some people involved: Harry H. Laughlin (founder) J. Philippe Rushton (4th & current president) These differences have been constant over time, so they are genetic (80% heritable) To apply... 500 words or less ->Heritability estimates change based on nongenetic factors in different populations 4 Contrary research: William T. Dickens and James R. Flynn
2006 Psychological Science vol. 17, p. 913 They looked at 3 different types of standardized tests R Result: bl k gained on whites even though l blacks i d hi h h whites made their own gains (the rate of gain for blacks <25yrs has been about 0.184 points per year) From: The New York Times 20 Nov 2006 More of Berkeley's Own: Mark Kishiyama & Robert Knight
Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute & Dept Psychology (and some non-Berkeley people...) To Summarize... American versus British ideas about eugenics The inheritance of complex traits Th problems of measuring IQ The bl f i Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
August 2008 A "We found that prefrontaldependent electrophysiological measures of attention were reduced in LSES compared to high SES (HSES) children..." 5 ...
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