Environmental+Estrogens+10 - Endocrine Disruptors &...

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What’s up down there? Prenatal exposure to phthalates leads to altered ano-genital distance in boys Endocrine Disruptors & Environmental Estrogens
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Some identified effects of EDCs in wildlife include: abnormal blood hormone levels; masculinization of females; feminization of males; intersex; deformities; abnormal and malformed reproductive organs; embryo mortality; skewed sex ratios; reduced fertility; altered sexual behavior; modified immune system; altered thyroid functions; brain and neurological problems; reproductive tissue cancers; and altered bone density and structure Wildlife can be feminized, masculanized, or reproductively suppressed by EDCs Most often noted in fish and other aquatic animals – linkage to wastewater treatment plant effluent
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Hormones are molecules that carry instructions from more than a dozen endocrine glands and tissues to cells all over the body. Humans have about 50 different known hormones, which vary in their structure, action and response. They control a variety of biological processes including muscle growth, heart rate, menstrual cycles and hunger.
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The endocrine system controls many bodily functions, including: reproduction sexual development growth and maintenance metabolism responding to external stimuli For every function it controls, the endocrine system follows this general pattern: a signal is received a hormonal response takes place a reaction occurs
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Three general hormone structures are known: Steroid hormones are fat-soluble molecules made from cholesterol: The three major sex hormones groups: estrogens, androgens and progesterones. Males and females make all three, but in different amounts. Steroids pass into a cell's nucleus bind to specific receptors and genes and control protein production Amino acid derivatives : ie. epinephrine. Water-soluble molecules derived from amino acids. Stored in endocrine cells until needed. Act by binding to protein receptors on the outside surface of the cell. The binding alerts a second messenger molecule inside the cell that activates enzymes and other cellular proteins or influences gene expression. Insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and other water-soluble polypeptide hormones : Large proteins of up to 200 amino acids long. Stored in endocrine cells until needed to regulate such processes as metabolism, lactation, growth and reproduction.
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Estrogens 17 beta estradiol Estrogens influence growth, development, and behavior; regulate reproductive cycles; and affect many other body systems. The hormones, are more plentiful and play a larger role in females than in males.
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Androgens Testosterone Steroid hormones that confer masculinity by triggering and controlling body programs that govern male sexual development and physique
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Corticoids Hydrocortisone Corticoid hormones balance stress response, inflammation, energy flow, body temperature, water balance, and other essential processes. Gender neutral.
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Progestins Involved in pregnancy, some behaviors, egg and sperm maturation, sexual receptiveness, and estrogen production Higher in females Progesterone
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course ESPM 192 taught by Professor Lindow during the Fall '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Environmental+Estrogens+10 - Endocrine Disruptors &...

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