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ESPM 192 DNA markers I, invasives 2010

ESPM 192 DNA markers I, invasives 2010 - DNA markers I...

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DNA markers I: Invasive species George Roderick, ESPM, [email protected] Increase in numbers of invaders in most habitats example: invertebrates in San Francisco Bay; one of the most intensively studied communities world-wide Economic damage to many crops: feeding damage and as vectors Complex of species in natural and managed systems Difficult to distinguish species and host associated populations, termed ‘biotypes’ (Hadjstylli M, Brown J, Roderick GK. 2009. Gene flow and population genetics of of Bemisia whiteflies) Bemisia whiteflies 4 Much progress here Introduction Pathway analysis, origins Predictive demography Climate matching--new area with global warming Can apply approaches to many species or questions, e.g., insects, pathogens, health, disease, climate change, etc. Invasions--geographic spread and demographic growth 5 types of genetic markers (observable traits; presence or absence of genes) Morphological traits Cytological characteristics Biochemical markers Protein variation DNA markers --repeat units ... --DNA sequences ... --genomes ... Biochemical markers Advantages, Disadvantages? Stable isotopes, N, C, H, O Uses--bird migration, origin of rain in redwood forests, origins of fish stocks, people and their drinking water, etc. Hydrocarbons, an example ...
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Ehleringer JR, Bowen GJ, Chesson LA, West AG, Podlesak DW, Cerling TE (2008) Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105 , 2788-2793. human hair tap water H O Person moved from Beijing to Salt Lake City Proteins Immunological markers Allozyme electrophoresis -- Has been useful in answering: --hat is a species? -- How much variation is there? What is a ‘wild-type’? -- hot questions of early 1960’s --Advantages? Disadvantages? in whiteflies, esterase associated with insecticide resistance Other protein variation Argentine Ant (Neil Tsutsui, Andy Suarez, PNAS 2001) 1 2 3 4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Y = 8.227 - 7.044 * X; R 2 = 0.58 Correlation of hydrocarbon profiles between nests Trend toward less inter-colony aggression in 7 invasive ant species; One explanation: link to founder effect and loss of genetic diversity (Tsustui, Suarez et al.; BMC Biology 2009) Argentine Ants Inter-colony aggression score DNA--how to visualize variation?
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