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Unformatted text preview: DNA markers I: Invasive species George Roderick, ESPM, [email protected] Increase in numbers of invaders in most habitats example: invertebrates in San Francisco Bay; one of the most intensively studied communities world-wide • Economic damage to many crops: feeding damage and as vectors • Complex of species in natural and managed systems • Dif¡cult to distinguish species and host associated populations, termed ‘biotypes’ (Hadjstylli M, Brown J, Roderick GK. 2009. Gene ¢ow and population genetics of of Bemisia white¢ies) Bemisia white¢ies 4 Much progress here Introduction Pathway analysis, origins Predictive demography Climate matching--new area with global warming Can apply approaches to many species or questions, e.g., insects, pathogens, health, disease, climate change, etc. Invasions--geographic spread and demographic growth 5 types of genetic markers (observable traits; presence or absence of genes) • Morphological traits • Cytological characteristics • Biochemical markers • Protein variation • DNA markers--repeat units ...--DNA sequences ...--genomes ... Biochemical markers • Advantages, Disadvantages? • Stable isotopes, N, C, H, O Uses--bird migration, origin of rain in redwood forests, origins of ¡sh stocks, people and their drinking water, etc. • Hydrocarbons, an example ... Ehleringer JR, Bowen GJ, Chesson LA, West AG, Podlesak DW, Cerling TE (2008) Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105 , 2788-2793. human hair tap water H O Person moved from Beijing to Salt Lake City Proteins • Immunological markers • Allozyme electrophoresis-- Has been useful in answering:--hat is a species?-- How much variation is there? What is a ‘wild-type’? -- hot questions of early 1960’s--Advantages? Disadvantages? in whiteFies, esterase associated with insecticide resistance • Other protein variation Argentine Ant (Neil Tsutsui, Andy Suarez, PNAS 2001) 1 2 3 4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Y = 8.227 - 7.044 * X; R 2 = 0.58 Correlation of hydrocarbon pro¡les between nests Trend toward less inter-colony aggression in 7 invasive ant species; One explanation: link to founder effect and loss of genetic diversity (Tsustui, Suarez et al.; BMC Biology 2009) Argentine Ants Inter-colony aggression score DNA--how to visualize variation?...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course ESPM 192 taught by Professor Lindow during the Fall '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Fall '10