espm192+2010_Chagas

espm192+2010_Chagas - Emerging an reemerging diseases...

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Emerging an reemerging diseases Increased sanitation, antibiotics/medicine, and insecticides enhanced public health for some time, but infectious diseases have reemerged as public health problems. Human activities that drive disease: Insecticide and drug resistance Population growth Deforestation, irrigation Increased transportation Pollution and climate change Wars, lack of sanitation
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Chaga’s disease, or American Trypanosomiasis
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Epidemiology Note: Red areas indicated endemic areas. Found only in the Americas, ranging from USA to Argentina , but it is mainly concentrated in rural areas. 16-18 million people infected with 500,000 new cases annually with 25% of Latin American population at risk. Mortality: 20,000/year. Certain human activities lead to increased contact between vectors and humans Deforestation, timbering Farming Transportation between rural and urban environments
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Chagas’ disease is a tropical human disease related to African Sleeping Sickness. Its etiologial agent is the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi .
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Symptoms of Chagas’ disease First stage - rare A small sore develops at the site of initial infection Romaña’s Sign ” occurs when this site is near the eye Chagomas (skin lesions) may also occur
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Acute stage Daily fever Swelling of lymph nodes, liver and spleen Acute heart conditions Occasionally fatal in children Usually mild or asymptomatic Chronic stage Clinical signs for 5-15 years after infection Enlargement of heart/muscle destruction Affected digestive tract Debilitation and death may occur
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Other Means of Infection T. cruzi can also be transmitted via organ transplantation, breast milk and blood transfusions. Cases where infection via the fecal-oral route have also been seen: Ingestion of feces- contaminated food. Ingestion of food
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course ESPM 192 taught by Professor Lindow during the Fall '10 term at Berkeley.

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espm192+2010_Chagas - Emerging an reemerging diseases...

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