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CONSTITUTION OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS. 222 I Bismuth.-Oeschsner de Coninck and Gsrard,' by reduction of bismuth Molybdenum.-Miiller,2 by oxidation of the metal, found Mo = 96.035. Neodymium.-Baxter, Whitcomb, Stewart, and Cha~in,~ by analyses Columbium.-Smith and Van Haager~,~ from the ratio between sodium The value Argon.-Schultze5 has redetermined the density of argon. The cor- chloride to metal, found Bi = 208.50. of the chloride, find Nd = 144.27. columbate (NaCbOJ and sodium chloride, find Cb = 93.13. 93.1 might be adopted in the table. responding atomic weight is A = 39.945. Signed, F. W. CLARKE, T. E. THORPE, G. URBAIN. NOTE.-Because of the European war the Committee has had much difficulty in the way of correspondence. The German member, Pro- fessor Ostwald, has not been heard from in connection with this report. Possibly the censorship of letters, either in Germany or en route, has led to a miscarriage. Chairman. [CONTRIBUTION FROM RESEARCH LABORATORY OF THE GEXERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, N. Y.] THE CONSTITUTION AND FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS. PART I. SOLIDS. BY IRVING LANGMUIR. Received September 5, 1916. The importance of the work of W. H. Bragg and W. I,. Bragg in its bearing on chemistry has not, as yet, been generally recognized. In hearing two of W. H. Bragg's lectures in this country a few years ago, the writer was impressed with the very great significance of this work in the field of chemistry. The structure of crystals as found by the Braggs leads to new and more definite conceptions as to the nature of chemical forces. The writer has constantly endeavored to apply this new conception in his work on heterogeneous reactions and particularly in connection with a study of the phenomena of adsorption and surface tension. In this way he has gradually been led to form more or less definite theories of the mechanism of evaporation, condensation, liquefaction, adsorption, and capillary phenomena. According to this theory, both solids and liquids Compt. rend., 162, 252 (1916). THIS JOURNAL, 37, 2046 (1915). Ibid., 38, 302 (1916). 38, 1783 (1916). E. Ann. Physik, [iv] 48, 269 (1915).
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2222 IRVING LANGMUIR. consist of atoms held together entirely by chemical forces. The conception of the molecule thus almost entirely loses its significance except in the case of gases. In fact, we may well look upon any solid or liquid body as con- stituting a single large molecule. Any change of phase, such as the melt- ing of a solid, is thus a typical chemical reaction. The mobility of liquids, according to this viewpoint, is due to a kind of tautomerism. The present paper is merely an outline of this theory. The more de- tailed description of the experimental work upon which it is largely based, will be reserved for future papers. STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALS. The idea that a crystal should constitute an effective diffraction grating for X-rays originated with Laue,l who also saw that by means of such a grating not only could the wave length of the X-rays be determined, but also a powerful method for studying the structure of crystals was made available. The detailed theory developed by Laue proved incorrect in certain important respects. W. L. Brag$ called attention to these errors
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2011 for the course ENE 804 taught by Professor Hashsham,s during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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