Nov_09 - • change in entropy ΔS = S f- S i • S in a...

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Chapter 13 Spontaneous Change
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Questions Why does ice melt at 10 ° C and freeze at -10 ° C? Why do we know the top picture on the left comes before the bottom picture on the left? What causes chemical reactions to occur?
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Consider the following process for an ideal gas: An adiabatic (q=0) free expansion (w=0) of 1 mole of ideal gas. U=q+w=0 so T=0 and H = U+ (PV)=0 No change in any 1 st law quantity The process is spontaneous. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics deals with spontaneous change
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Entropy - S The order in a system is the factor which determines spontaneous change The amount of disorder or randomness in a system is called entropy (S)
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Unformatted text preview: • change in entropy ΔS = S f- S i • S in a state function A Microscopic View of Entropy a b c d a b c a b c d d abcd, -abc, d acd, b abd, c bcd, a ab, cd bc, ad ac, bd bd, ac ad, bc cd, ab Factors Influencing Entropy a. Positional disorder Spreading into a greater volume or mixing with other substances. b. Thermal disorder Increase in T corresponds to an increase in thermal motion. Positional Disorder Ideal Gas Compression Reversibility • reversible processes are ones done where everything is in equilibrium • in practice, the reversible path would take forever • maximum work is done...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2011 for the course CHEM 154 CHEM 154 taught by Professor Yang during the Spring '10 term at The University of British Columbia.

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Nov_09 - • change in entropy ΔS = S f- S i • S in a...

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