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# Nov_09 - • change in entropy ΔS = S f S i • S in a...

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Chapter 13 Spontaneous Change

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Questions Why does ice melt at 10 ° C and freeze at -10 ° C? Why do we know the top picture on the left comes before the bottom picture on the left? What causes chemical reactions to occur?
Consider the following process for an ideal gas: An adiabatic (q=0) free expansion (w=0) of 1 mole of ideal gas. U=q+w=0 so T=0 and H = U+ (PV)=0 No change in any 1 st law quantity The process is spontaneous. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics deals with spontaneous change

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Entropy - S The order in a system is the factor which determines spontaneous change The amount of disorder or randomness in a system is called entropy (S)

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Unformatted text preview: • change in entropy ΔS = S f- S i • S in a state function A Microscopic View of Entropy a b c d a b c a b c d d abcd, -abc, d acd, b abd, c bcd, a ab, cd bc, ad ac, bd bd, ac ad, bc cd, ab Factors Influencing Entropy a. Positional disorder Spreading into a greater volume or mixing with other substances. b. Thermal disorder Increase in T corresponds to an increase in thermal motion. Positional Disorder Ideal Gas Compression Reversibility • reversible processes are ones done where everything is in equilibrium • in practice, the reversible path would take forever • maximum work is done...
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Nov_09 - • change in entropy ΔS = S f S i • S in a...

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