# Nov_16 - Suggested Problems for Chapter 13 7 15 23 31 35 39...

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Suggested Problems for Chapter 13 7, 15, 23, 31, 35, 39, 41, 43(a)(b), 45

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Factors favouring spontaneous processes: • -ve ΔH (exothermic reaction) • +ve ΔS (an increase in disorder) ΔH ΔS Result ̶ + (spontaneous) + ̶ (not spontaneous) ̶ ̶ ? + + ? Spontaneity
Gibbs Free Energy " G is a state function defined as: G = H – TS " At constant T: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS " For a system also at standard-state: ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS° " This function combines the contributions of ΔH and ΔS to determine the spontaneity of a reaction

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2nd Law & Gibbs Free Energy Spontaneous process : One must calculate Δ S surr explicitly Constant T: q sys is transferred reversibly to surroundings Constant P: q sys = q p = ΔH S univ = S sys − H sys T S univ = S sys q surr ,rev T = S sys q sys ,rev T S univ = S sys + S surr 0
" -T S univ is the change in Gibbs Free Energy ( G sys ) " Only system information is needed. Rearranging G sys = H sys -T S sys , at constant T, P -T S univ = -T S sys + ∆Η sys " S univ

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