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# Nov_19 - Suggested Problems for Chapter 13 7 15 23 31 35 39...

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Suggested Problems for Chapter 13 7, 15, 23, 31, 35, 39, 41, 43(a)(b), 45

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Entropy and Activity S C2 = S° - R·ln(C 2 /C °) therefore becomes, S = S° - R·ln(a) where S is the entropy for the activity a of a substance
Given a general chemical reaction: w A + x B → y C + z D ΔS rxn = Σ S(products) - Σ S(reactants) = y S C + z S D – w S A – x S B For the entropy of each species we use S = Sº - R·ln(a) So: S rxn = S ˚ rxn R ln a C y a D z a A w a B x

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Reaction Quotient, Q The activity term " Q is called the reaction quotient " Q a measure of the extent of reaction " Q changes as the reaction proceeds. S Δ = S° - R ln Q Δ a Y y a Z z a W w a X x = Q
G and Concentration This result lets us deal with G at non-standard conditions: G = ∆Η – T S Substituting ∆Η ° ∆Η and our result for S G = ∆Η ° T ( S° - R ln Q) G = ∆Η ° T S° + RT ln Q But ∆Η ° T S° is just G = G° + RT ln Q

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Evaluating Q
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Nov_19 - Suggested Problems for Chapter 13 7 15 23 31 35 39...

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