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Oct_26 - 2 overlaps • The C – C single bond is an sp 2...

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Hybridization Continued How do we know when to hybridize? Valence bond theory DOES NOT predict shapes of molecules It is used to account for the bonds AFTER we know the geometry We can use experiments or VSEPR to determine the expected molecular geometry
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Linear Geometries - sp Hybrid Orbitals
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Trigonal Planar Geometries - sp 2 Hybrid Orbitals
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Multiple Covalent Bonds Consider the bonding in C 2 H 4 VSEPR predicts 120° H-C-H and H-C-C bond angles What is the shape of the whole molecule? Could be anything from A complete valence bond picture of the bonding in C 2 H 4 will give us the answer to C C H H H H C C H H H H planar twisted
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Sigma bonding in C 2 H 4 The H – C bonds are 1s + sp
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Unformatted text preview: 2 overlaps • The C – C single bond is an sp 2 + sp 2 overlap • Bonds where the electron density is on the axis between atoms are called sigma bonds • Each C has a trigonal planar geometry, so they are sp 2 hybridized ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 2s 2p ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ sp 2 2p Pi bonding in C 2 H 4 • Each carbon has a half filled p orbital which is 90°to the sp 2 hybrids • To make the additional bond, these two 2p orbitals must overlap in space and in phase • This means that all of the sigma bonds must lie in the same plane • Pi bonds have a node along the internuclear axis...
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