3. Pragmatics - 3.3. y 3.4. Implicature-Grice-presupposition-relevance

3. Pragmatics - 3.3. y 3.4. Implicature-Grice-presupposition-relevance

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3. Discourse Pragmatics 3.3. Reference, presupposition , implicature and inference 3.4. Cooperative principle & Relevance Theory
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3.3. REFERENCE, PRESUPPOSITION, IMPLICATURE AND INFERENCE The discourse analyst necessarily takes a pragmatic approach to the study of language in use . So, take into account some issues which do not generally receive much attention in the formal linguist’s description of sentential syntax and semantic. Ex = context, know who the speaker and listener are, time and place of the production of discourse. Since the analyst is investigating the use of language in context by a speaker/writer, he is more concerned with the relationship of use, than with the potential relationship of one sentence to another, regardless of their use. That is, in using terms such as reference, presupposition, implicature and inference , the discourse analyst is describing what speakers and hearers are doing, and not the relationship which exists between one sentence or proposition and another.
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PRESUPPOSITION DEF = it is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse. Assumptions the speaker makes about what the hearer is likely to accept without challenge. (Givón, 1979:50) What is taken by the speaker to be the common ground of the participants in the conversation. (Stalnaker 1978:321) Examples of presuppositions include: Do you want to do it again? Presupposition: that you have done it already, at least once. Jane no longer writes fiction. Presupposition: that Jane once wrote fiction. A presupposition must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and can be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
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Crucially, negation of an expression does not change its presuppositions: I want to do it again and I don't want to do it again both presuppose that the subject has done it already one or more times. My wife is pregnant and My wife is not pregnant both presuppose that the subject has a wife. In this respect, presupposition is distinguished from entailment and implication. Ex:
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3. Pragmatics - 3.3. y 3.4. Implicature-Grice-presupposition-relevance

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