EVPP 110 Lecture - Physical Environment - Atmosphere Composition and Structure - Student - Fall 2010

EVPP 110 Lecture - Physical Environment - Atmosphere Composition and Structure - Student - Fall 2010

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Unformatted text preview: Physical Environment: Physical Atmosphere Composition & Structure Structure EVPP 110 Lecture Dr. Largen Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Earth’s atmosphere – unique Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Composition – Gaseous envelope Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Composition – mixture of gases primary gases other gases iClicker Question iClicker The two most abundant chemical The components in the earth's atmosphere are components – A. – B. – C. – D. – E. oxygen and carbon oxygen and hydrogen nitrogen and carbon oxygen and nitrogen nitrogen and hydrogen Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Vertical structure – several characteristics vary altitude air density and air pressure air temperature gaseous composition electrical properties Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Vertical structure – several characteristics vary altitude air density and air pressure air temperature gaseous composition electrical properties Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Vertical structure – air density and air pressure air density Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Vertical structure – air pressure iClicker Question iClicker Density = Density – A. – B. – C. – D. – E. Height / length Mass / length Volume / mass Mass / volume Height / volume iClicker Question iClicker Air pressure – A. Is constant at all altitudes in the atmosphere – B. Increases at a linear rate as altitude B. increases increases – C. Decreases as altitude increases – D. Is related to air density – E. C and D Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Vertical structure – several characteristics vary altitude air density and air pressure air temperature gaseous composition electrical properties Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Vertical structure – air temperature Avg lapse rate – ~6.5°C per 1000 m temperature inversion Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Vertical structure of atmosphere – air temperature Defines layers – Troposphere tropopause – Stratosphere stratopause – Mesosphere mesopause – Thermosphere thermopause – Exosphere Exosphere iClicker Question iClicker In the troposphere, temperature normally – A. Increases with increased altitude – B. Decreases with increased altitude – C. Stays the same at all altitudes iClicker Question iClicker In all layers of the atmosphere, temperature In and pressure change at the same rate as altitude increases. altitude – A. true – B. False iClicker Question iClicker Which of the following correctly lists the layers of Which atmosphere defined by temperature in the proper order from the layer closest to the surface of the earth to the layer furthest from its surface? layer – – – – – A. B. C. D. E. mesosphere, troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere thermosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, troposphere thermosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, heterosphere stratosphere, troposphere, thermosphere, mesosphere Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Vertical structure – several characteristics vary altitude air density and air pressure air temperature gaseous composition electrical properties Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Vertical structure – gaseous composition Homosphere Homosphere Heterosphere Heterosphere iClicker Question iClicker Throughout the homosphere, the relative Throughout concentrations of nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere remain constant even though the amount of air present is decreasing with increased altitude. – A. True – B. False iClicker Question iClicker What are the names of the two layers of the What atmosphere that are based on gaseous composition in terms of the relative percentages of nitrogen and oxygen? oxygen? – A. ionosphere and exosphere – B. troposphere and stratosphere – C. thermosphere and ionosphere – D. heterosphere and exosphere – E. homosphere and heterosphere Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Vertical structure – several characteristics vary altitude air density and air pressure air temperature gaseous composition electrical properties Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Vertical structure of the atmosphere – electrical properties ionosphere iClicker Question iClicker Which of the following characteristics of the Which atmosphere varies to some extent with altitude? – A. – B. B. – C. – D. – E. temperature air density gaseous composition electrical properties all of the above Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Heat transfer – convection convective circulation thermals – thermal cell – wind Fig. 17.2 Fig. Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Atmospheric moisture – enters, moves about in, leaves atmosphere enters, via via evaporation transport precipitation Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Atmospheric moisture – atmospheric conditions govern phase atmospheric changes of water changes sublimation evaporation condensation Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Atmospheric moisture – Evaporation rate – affected by humidity – Humidity – absolute humidity – relative humidity dew point iClicker Question iClicker Absolute and relative humidity are the same thing. – A. True – B. False iClicker Question iClicker Which can hold more moisture, colder air or warmer Which air? air? – A. Colder air – B. Warmer air iClicker Question iClicker If the temperature of a mass of air increased, would it If be able to hold more or less moisture ? be – A. More A. – B. Less B. Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Atmospheric moisture – transport – precipitation forms liquid gas solid Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Atmospheric moisture – precipitation – factors governing – temperature – humidity – dew point Physical Environment: The Atmosphere The Atmosphere – Earth’s atmosphere – Composition – Vertical structure – Heat transfer – Atmospheric moisture – Adiabatic processes Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Adiabatic processes – combine aspects of vertical structure of atmosphere, combine heat transfer, moisture content and circulation heat adiabatic cooling adiabatic heating Physical Environment: The Atmosphere Physical Adiabatic processes – dry adiabatic lapse rate ~10.0°C / 1000m ~10.0°C – moist adiabatic lapse rate ~6.0°C /1000m The End The ...
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