EVPP 110 Lecture - Physical Environment - Earthquakes - Student - Fall 2010

EVPP 110 Lecture - Physical Environment - Earthquakes - Student - Fall 2010

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1 EVPP 110 Lecture EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Instructor: Dr. Largen Physical Environment: Physical Environment: Earthquakes Earthquakes
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2 Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Volcanoes
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3 Earthquakes Earthquakes definition cause features fault focus epicenter measurement and rating primary effects secondary effects
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4 Definition Cause
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5 Earthquake- features Earthquake- features fault focus epicenter foreshocks aftershocks
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6 Earthquake- features Earthquake- features fault
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7 Figure: Crustal plate boundaries Figure: Crustal plate boundaries
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8 Earthquake- features Earthquake- features Focus Epicenter
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9 Earthquake- features Earthquake- features Foreshocks Main shock Aftershocks
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10 10 Earthquake- measurement Earthquake- measurement device Seismograph (or seismometer) produces seismogram
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11 11 Earthquake- measurement Earthquake- measurement Scales Richter scale
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12 12 Earthquake- measurement Earthquake- measurement Richter scale generalized severity rating insignificant < 4.0 on Richter scale minor 4.0 - 4.9 on Richter scale damaging 5.0 - 5.9 on Richter scale destructive 6.0 - 6.9 on Richter scale major 7.0 - 7.9 on Richter scale great 8.0 on Richter scale
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13 13 Average annual number of Average annual number of earthquakes by magnitude earthquakes by magnitude Description Richter Magnitude # Annually Great 8.0 1 Major 7.0 - 7.9 18 Destructive 6.0 - 6.9 120 Damaging 5.0 - 5.9 800 Minor 4.0 - 4.9 6,200 Insignificant < 4.0 Mag. 3-4: 49,000 Mag. 2-3: 365,000 Mag. 1-2: 2,920,000
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14 14 Based on amplitude of ground motion
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15 15 Earthquake- measurement Earthquake- measurement Mercalli scale Intensity scale range I - XII based on Human response/perception used by Insurance companies seismologists seeking information on the severity of earthquake effects
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16 16
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17 17 Earthquakes Earthquakes Earthquake video at http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/play
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18 18 Earthquake - Effects Earthquake - Effects Earthquakes damage primary effects secondary effects
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19 19 Earthquakes - Primary Effects Earthquakes - Primary Effects Primary effects direct effects from movement of earth on people buildings bridges overpasses dams pipelines
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20 20 •5/12/2008 •Eastern Sichuan, China •Deaths: 87,587 •Magnitude: 7.9 •Primary effect: people
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21 •1/17/1995 •Kobe, Japan •Deaths: 5,502 •Magnitude: 6.9 •Primary effect: road collapse
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EVPP 110 Lecture - Physical Environment - Earthquakes - Student - Fall 2010

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