bmgt301 FINAL notes

bmgt301 FINAL notes - bmgt301FINAL Hardwarefundamentals

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bmgt301 FINAL 09/05/2009 15:31:00 Hardware fundamentals Analog vs. digital information processing Analog Data represented by some physical quantity or electrical quantity (voltage or charge) which  varies continuously Ex: stereo turntables (for records), cassette players, tv, radio Digital Data represented by discrete states (on or off) EX: modern computers, cd players, dvd players Moore’s Law Four Generations 1 st 2 nd : mid 50s. Transistors 3 rd : mid 60s. integrated circuits 4 th : 70s. microprocessors 5 th : 80s. faster networked machines all computers based on: input-processing-output-storage stored program concept
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CPU, ALU , control unit Binary system Memory Instruction and execute cycles Coding Info 2 states: Binary 0 (no signal), Binary 1 (Signal) binary digit = BIT = unit of info. o 8 BITS = 1 BYTE (1 character worth of info.) 1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte 1024 kbytes – 1 megabyte 1024 megabytes = 1 gigabyte 1024 gbytes = 1 terabyte Start-Up Process CPU --- ROM (Read only memory) ROM contains BIOS (basic input output system) ROM instructs CPU to check critical hardware – system bus, RAM, keyboard, monitor, hard  drive ROM --- CPU Asks CPU to search for boot sector Operating system kicks in Windows loads drivers, check everything ----- READY for commands
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CPU 2 parts o ALU Processes data, does the actual work o Control unit Coordinates and controls the various parts of the computer system, manages  system Consists of electronic circuits o Comprised of transistors etched onto chips Chip  – collection of electronic components in a small, self contained  package. Circuit board/card – hardware device on which chips are mounted. Primary memory Consists of numerous data slots with a unique address and can hold one “word” Stored Program  – sets of instructions are stored in secondary storage, temporarily into  memory, executed, then discarded when computer is turned off. Secondary Storage Storage medium, storage device, connected to CPU Magnetic o Aligned particle = 0, non-aligned = 1 o Read/write head aligns and detects Hard disks, floppys, magnetic tape, zip drives Optical o No surface pit = 0,  surface pit = 1
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o Laser detects presence and absence CD ROM, DVD, video disk Solid State (Electronic) o Popular type of removable storage for small devices. Digital camera and PDA cards.
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2011 for the course BMGT 301 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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bmgt301 FINAL notes - bmgt301FINAL Hardwarefundamentals

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