Lecture - Hardware Fundamentals

Lecture - Hardware Fundamentals - BMGT 301 INTRODUCTION TO...

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BMGT 301 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS Prof. Don Riley
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Store PARTS Computers Communications Know-how FUNCTIONS Capture Process Generate Store Retrieve Transmit Input Process Output
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Analog Information Processing – Data represented by some physical quantity or electrical quantity (e.g. voltage or charge) which varies continuously. – E.g. Stereo turntables (for vinyl records), Audio Cassette players, traditional clocks/watches, TV, Radio. Digital Information Processing – Data represented by discrete states (e.g., on or off). – E.g., modern computers, CD players, DVD players. • Early computers were analog. Now nearly every computer is digital. • What is Moore’s Law? (Hint: See earlier slides)
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First Generation – 1930s & 1940s Vacuum Tubes. Second Generation – mid 1950s Transistors Third Generation – mid 1960s Integrated Circuits (silicon chips) Fourth Generation – 1970s Microprocessors Fifth Generation – 1980s Faster networked machines • Computers get smaller, faster, more reliable, and more powerful!
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• Virtually all computers are based on the same simple principles and parts. – input-processing-output-storage – stored program concept – CPU, ALU, control unit – binary system – memory – instruction and execute cycles
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• Everything in computers is coded into binary. • Binary Digit = Bit = the fundament unit of information • 8 Bits = 1 Byte (1 character worth of information) – 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte (1K) – 1024 Kbytes = 1 Megabyte (1MB) – 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte (1GB) – 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte (1TB) • ASCII coding for storing and interpreting characters – 8-bits per character
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2011 for the course BMGT 301 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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Lecture - Hardware Fundamentals - BMGT 301 INTRODUCTION TO...

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