MT2review

MT2review - Study Guide for Second Midterm Examination in...

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Study Guide for Second Midterm Examination in Anthropology B200 The following are study questions to help you organize the material you have learned during this section of the course. This is by no means a comprehensive list of subjects, and you are responsible for any and all material presented in class, and the assigned readings . Make sure that you can answer questions from AE: 1. What is race? Race: has been used interchangeable with subspecies, when applied to humans, sometimes incorporates both cultural and biological factors o Subspecies: variation below the species level, a group of local populations that share part of the geographic range of species and can be differentiated based on one or more trait How does the current study of human biological variation differ from older usage of the race concept? Today, race is viewed as a strictly cultural or sociological term, denoting group membership as opposed to the study of variation of the human race A historical perspective saw races as different “types” of humans What is the clinal approach to human biological variation? Clinal: gradual change across space across geographic locations o Idea that genetically inherited traits change gradually in frequency from one geographic location to another 2. What is “social Darwinism” and how does it relate (if at all) to Darwinism? Social Darwinism: the use of social values (ranking, superiority, inferiority) as evidence of differential fitness Competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas drives social evolution in human societies o The survival of the fittest came to mean the encouragement of breeding among those with SUPERIOR traits and the discouragement of breeding among those with INFERIOR traits o Different from Darwinism because HUMANS are making the choices due to social and cultural factors 3. Why is skin color a good example of a clinal trait? Variation in skin color is a good example of a clinal trait because it varies across human populations and variation correlates with latitude How does the study of variation in skin color illustrate forces of evolution acting in human populations? Human skin color is the product of natural selection acting to regulate the effects of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation How does skin color relate to latitude (what roles do UV light and Vitamin D play)? People with the darkest skin live at the equator or in the tropics People with the lightest skin live near the poles Most people get their vitamin D from the sun
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Tan people who live by the equator have more melanin, which blocks UVR, so tan people cannot synthesize vitamin D as well as pale people Why was lighter skin selected for at high latitudes and what evidence do we have for this? Folate
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MT2review - Study Guide for Second Midterm Examination in...

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