lecture3 - Chapter 3 Processes Chapter 3 Processes s...

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Chapter 3: Processes Chapter 3: Processes
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3.2 Chapter 3: Processes Chapter 3: Processes Process Concept Process Scheduling Operations on Processes Cooperating Processes Interprocess Communication Communication in Client-Server Systems
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3.3 Process Concept Process Concept An operating system executes a variety of programs: Batch system – jobs Time-shared systems – user programs or tasks Textbook uses the terms job and process almost interchangeably Process – a program in execution; process execution must progress in sequential fashion A process includes: program counter stack data section
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3.4 Process in Memory Process in Memory
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3.5 Process State Process State As a process executes, it changes state new : The process is being created running : Instructions are being executed waiting : The process is waiting for some event to occur ready : The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor terminated : The process has finished execution
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3.6 Diagram of Process State Diagram of Process State
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3.7 Process Control Block (PCB) Process Control Block (PCB) Information associated with each process Process state Program counter CPU registers CPU scheduling information Memory-management information Accounting information I/O status information
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3.8 Process Control Block (PCB) Process Control Block (PCB)
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3.9 CPU Switch From Process to Process CPU Switch From Process to Process
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3.10 Process Scheduling Queues Process Scheduling Queues Job queue – set of all processes in the system Ready queue – set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute Device queues – set of processes waiting for an I/O device Processes migrate among the various queues
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3.11 Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues
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3.12 Representation of Process Scheduling Representation of Process Scheduling
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3.13 Schedulers Schedulers Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) – selects which processes should be brought into the ready queue Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) – selects which process should be executed next and allocates CPU
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3.14 Addition of Medium Term Scheduling Addition of Medium Term Scheduling
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3.15 Schedulers (Cont.) Schedulers (Cont.) Short-term scheduler is invoked very frequently (milliseconds) (must be fast) Long-term scheduler is invoked very infrequently (seconds, minutes) (may be slow) The long-term scheduler controls the degree of multiprogramming Processes can be described as either: I/O-bound process – spends more time doing I/O than computations, many short CPU bursts CPU-bound process – spends more time doing computations; few very long CPU bursts
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3.16
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