ai-game - Game Playing 1 Generate and Test Search can be...

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1 Game Playing
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2 Generate and Test Search can be viewed as a generate and test procedures Testing for a complete path is performed after varying amount of work has been done by the generator At one extreme the generator generates a complete path which is evaluated At the other extreme each move is tested by the evaluator as it is proposed by the generator
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3 Improving Search-Based Problem Solving Two options 1. Improve “generator” to only generate good moves or paths 2. Improve “tester” so that good moves recognized early and explored first
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4 Using Generate and Test Can be used to solve identification problems in small search spaces Can be thought of as being a depth-first search process with backtracking allowed Can be used as an expert system for identifying chemical compounds
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5 Dangers Consider a safe cracker trying to use generate a test to crack a safe with a 3 number combination (00-00-00) There are 100 3 possible combinations At 3 attempts/minute it would take 16 weeks of 24/7 work to try each combination in a systematic manner
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6 Generator Properties Complete capable of producing all possible solutions Non-redundant don’t propose same solution twice Informed make use of constraints to limit solutions being proposed
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7 Dealing with Adversaries Games have fascinated computer scientists for many years Babbage playing chess on Analytic Engine designed Tic-Tac-Toe machine Shanon (1950) and Turing (1953) described chess playing algorithms Samuels (1960) Built first significant game playing program (checkers)
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8 Why games attracted interest of computer scientists? Seemed to be a good domain for work on machine intelligence, because they were thought to: provide a source of a good structured task in which success or failure is easy to measure not require much knowledge (this was later found to be untrue)
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9 Chess Average branching factor for each position is 35 Each player makes 50 moves in an average game A complete game has 35 100 potential positions to consider Straight forward search of this space would not terminate during either players lifetime
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10 Games Can’t simply use search like in “puzzle” solving since you have an opponent Need to have both a good generator and an effective tester Heuristic knowledge will also be helpful to both the generator and tester
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11 Ply Some writers use the term “ply” to mean a single move by either player Some insists “ply” is made up of a move
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ai-game - Game Playing 1 Generate and Test Search can be...

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