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Philosophical Tools Chapter 2 notes

Philosophical Tools Chapter 2 notes - Necessary condition...

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Philosophical Tools Logical consistency – seeing if our beliefs fit into a coherent system of thought All the claims are true at the same time Logically inconsistent – if and only if the set of claims is not true at the same time Contradictions – a sentence that both denies and asserts that something is the case. Logical Possibility Causal possibility – in general, we say that something is causally possible if it does not defy the laws of nature. Logically possible – we can say that a state of affairs is logically possible if it does not entail a contradiction Definitions One way to clarify terms is to develop precise definitions Lexical definitions – definitions in dictionaries
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Unformatted text preview: Necessary condition – a condition q is necessary for p if it is impossible for something to be p without being q Suffiecient condition – a condition q is suffiecient for p if it is impossible for something to be q and not p Counterexamples The most effective way to challenge definitions Thought experiment – whether a relationship really holds can be tested by this Basic structure of arguments Arguments have: a claim and reasons The claim that an argument tries to establish is the conclusion The support for the claim is called the premisies Standard form - all premises in order then conclusion at the end...
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