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Iran review - P olitical Science F inal Review Semester...

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Political Science Final Review Semester 1-Ingelhert Mexico A. Beginnings/Native American/Pre 1910 Revolution 1) Spanish Conquest ruined the Aztec Empire (diseases, 20 mil 1mil, religious conversions, unequal society) 2) 1833-1855 = dictatorship, 36 presidents, assassinations, war in Texas, war vs US 3) Pofirio Diaz (1871-1911) a) Modernize to stand up to the US b) Goal = science and technology, cientificos (experts from Europe) c) Top down, Middle class frozen out, power in a group of small elite 4) Agrarian Society a) Landowning class vs. exploited masses = inequality b) Peasants are at subsitence level, surplus to land owners c) Everyone at mercy of the upper class, authoritarian— landed elite have no desire to industrialize 5) Social Revolution of 1910 a) Francisco Modero and middle class reformers – influenced by ordinary people b) 1910-1924 = chaotic struggle (2 million die, all leaders killed) c) 1924-1934 = War-lords/general rule (Plutarco Calles) d) 1927-1929 = Cristero Rebellion – Church vs. State (church w/ land owners decrease influence of roman catholic church and Spanish elite) B. Party of National Revolution Institutional Revolutionary Party = PRI 1) Coalition of military leaders ended dominance by Spanish elite 2) Legitimized native American culture 3) Emphasize pre-spanish Aztec empire
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4) Stability = strong central government w/ president absolute power, 6 year fixed term, no re-election, circulation of elite, democratic symbols of election, 1 party always won, oligarchy, patronage 5) redistribute land 6) masses in politics – marx inspired C. Why the PRI lasted? 1) Economically a) 1940-1980 economic growth: 7% per year, double national income every decade b) NAFTA = mexico in north American market c) Top 15 economies in the world 2) Popular revolution with high letigamacy a) Mestizo majority, loyal mass base, well organized inside elites b) Replaced coups with elections 3) Low class conflict – social reform, economic protection, maintain loyality of farmers, co-opted land a) Emphasis on Indian heritage b) Large farms were dismantled and landowners were forced out communal land holding policy 4) Secured opposition a) Army = tool of upper class 5) Corruption a) Technocrat rule – current president chooses the next, recirculation of elites, patronage, unchecked power D. Fall of the PRI 1) 1988 – PRI no majority, 1990 – PAN representation, 1994 PRI 50.4% president election, 1996 - PRI lost majority in chamber of deputies, 2000 - PAN won 43%, 2006 - Calderon (PAN, conservative) = chief of govt and state (vs. Lopez Obrador of PRD, left liberal) 2) Why 90’s = corruption, young technocrats respect democracy, international pressures, Zedillo = electronic voting cards embraced democracy E. Mexico Legislature Today
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1) President: elected nationally by simple plurality, appoints cabinet, constraints on power, nominates 3 members to SC (approved by senate), one term a) Meta-constitutional powers: more powers than specified in the constitution, ended in 2000 2)
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