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political science 140 mdtm

political science 140 mdtm - Political Science 140 Midterm...

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Political Science 140 Midterm Outline Vocabulary Elites/Masses: Elites are a group of people who are “in charge” of a country – where the wealth is vs. masses, who are the normal citizens, middle class workers, where the majority of the country lies economically a. Few people control (oligarchy) v. evenly distributed (democracy) 4 th Republic: France, (1946-1958) after the Vichy Regime - - governed by a national assembly, no strong executive for signature reforms, challenge = rebuild the economy and decolonization* (Algeria and Vietnam), collapsed because of colonization and fell with a military uprising 5% Threshold: Germany – you must get 5% of the second ballot to get anything in the Bundestag (Lower house -- National Government) –in Germany there are elections held about every 4 years and there are two ballots, the first ballot elects local constituency (single member, FPTP) The second ballot decides what % of seats in the Bundestag go to each party, 23% of vote = 23% of seats – prevents extreme parties and fragmentation Authoritarian Reflex: in crisis masses look to authoritarian figure to “solve” their problems with easy answers (rise of Hitler) Barrington Moore: economic development can lead to three things – democracy, fascism, and communism. The elite that dominates the modernization determines the regime --- a. Bourgeoisie > landed aristocracy = democracy b. Landed elite remains senior partner > bourgeoisie = fascism c. Middle class fails to develop sufficiently to challenge the aristocracy “premature revolution lead by intellectuals” (peasant mass) = communism Bismarck: led the unification of Germany Ottoman Empire – military and political genius - - 3 wars to bring German unity (Denmark, Austria, and France) however, knew when to stop (after 1871) and Germany was unified – became the conservative leader and avoided conflicts. German cultural hero (King of Prussia = emperor = Kaiser) knew how to conciliate bourgeoisie = tariffs, railroads, industries and working class = *first welfare state
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a. Second Reich (1871-1918) - Kaiser, lower house (Reichstag) = universal male suffrage, no power and upper house (landtag) controlled by Bismarck and landed aristocracy, not elected Bourgeoisie: the middle/working class, an essential part in industrialization and the Barrington Moore Thesis Branches of Government: helps create checks and balances – when different government powers are delegated to different groups in control of the government Bundestag: Lower House in Germany (600 seats) personalized proportional representation (2 ballot system), can have constructive vote of no confidence of government, evaluate/amend/enact legislation – forum for debate (like GB), strong committee system = strong oversight, has nearly always required a coalition to form majority Bundesrat: Upper House in Germany (69 seats) can block or override legislation (can override by majority in Bundestag), ambassador of states to federal government, important to control a majority – represents the states (Lander) Bureaucracy: rule from an office – make up 1 composition a.
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political science 140 mdtm - Political Science 140 Midterm...

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