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Lilenfield 108-117, 130-137 - Page 108-117 A The brain 1...

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Page 108-117 A. The brain 1. Brain weighs 3 pounds 2. Neurons (108): nerve cells specialized for communication 3. Our brains have 100 billion neurons 4. Biological Psychologists/neuroscientists: researchers who study the brain and behavior 5. Nervous system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves 6. Central Nervous System (CNS) 109: part of nervous system containing brain and spinal cord that enables mind and behavior. Sensory info comes into CNS. 7. Peripheral Nervous System (PNSS) 109: nerves in the body that extend outside the CNS. Divided into somatic nervous system , which controls behavior, and autonomic nervous system , which helps us experience and express emotion. B. Forebrain/cerebrum (109): forward part of brain that allows advance intellectual abilities. Most highly developed area in the human brain. Most of the brain’s conscious functions 1. Cerebral cortex (109): largest outer most component of the forebrain, responsible for analyzing sensory processing and higher brain functions. Contains 12-20 billion neurons. Ability to think, talk, and reason i. Frontal lobe (110): motor function, language, memory, mental function. a. Neocortex (110): vast majority of our cerebral cortex. Present in all mammals, but absent in birds and reptiles. Human neocortex attains a larger size in proportion to our bodies. b. Cerebral hemispheres (110): 2 halves of the cerebral cortex which serve different yet highly integrated cognition functions c. Corpus callosum (110): large band of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres d. Frontal lobe (110): forward part of cerebral cortex containing the motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex; responsible for motor function, language, and memory. i. Executive function (110): Also oversees most other mental function ii. Central Sulcus (110): separates the frontal lobe from the rest of the neocortex. iii. Motor cortex (110): part of frontal lobe responsible for body movement. Next to the central sulcus. Wilder Penfield discovered that each part of motor cortex controlled a specific part of the body iv. Prefrontal cortex (110): in front of the motor cortex. Part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning, and language. Additional functions: memory, abstract thinking, decision making, receives info from other regions of the cerebral cortex, contributes to mood, personality and self-awareness. 1. Broca’s area (110): Region of the prefrontal cortex. Paul Broca discovered that this site plays a key role in language production. Damage to this area exhibit a serious speech deficit 2. Aphasia (110): speech deficit. Difficulties in speaking smoothly and inability to come up with certain words. Located in the left cerebral hemisphere. 3. Phineas Cage (111) e. Parietal Lobe (111): part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning, and language. Upper middle part of cerebral cortex behind frontal lobe. Plays role in perception: spatial perception (detection of objects in space—upper part of the parietal lobe), perception of object space and orientation, perception of other’s
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actions, and representation of numbers. Integrates visual and touch inputs with motor
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