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Lilenfield Chapter 1 - Popular psychology industry(24 a...

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Popular psychology industry (24): a sprawling network of everyday sources of information about human behavior. Naïve Realism (25): the belief that we see the world precisely as it is. “seeing is believing” (26) Our common sense tells us that our memories accurately capture virtually everything we’ve seen but research demonstrates otherwise. It assures us that people who don’t share same beliefs are biased, but that we’re objective. Our beliefs shape our perceptions of the world. Common sense can also be a helpful guide for generating hypotheses that scientist can later test in rigorous investigations. Patients whose corpus callosum (a large band of fibers connecting the brain’s left and right hemispheres) has been surgically removed show many unusual behaviors. The media (self help books, internet) is expanding every year. Some self- help books are misleading and dangerous (95%) while others maybe helpful. The internet is usually misleading and the psychics, “channelers” are also flopped when put to the test. Psychotherapy- some are helpful for psychological problems. o “Thought Field Therapy”, a treatment that claims to alleviate severe anxiety by tapping on body areas that supposedly radiate important psychological “energies”, report cure rates of 98%. “Cures” vs. “Treatments” Popular Psychology (28): contains plenty of accurate information about human behavior, but hard to find. Subliminal messages (28): messages that aren’t consciously perceived but that supposedly affect behavior. “insist on evidence” ( 29) Science is an approach to evidence. Communalism (29): a willingness to share our findings with others. By Robert Merton. It underscores the point that scientists are part of a community of scholars who work together. Disinterestedness (29): scientists should try their best to be objective when evaluating evidence. Scientists should be influenced by personal or financial investments in their research. By Merton. Best scientists- must realize their biases and that the results of the study could be negative. They may “unintentionally” change some things because they are prone to self-deception. Aware that they might be mistaken. Confirmation bias (30): the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and neglect or distort evidence that contradicts them. “Seek and ye shall find.” It results in psychological tunnel vision. Ex. Wason selection task- 4 cards. Ex. Mark Snyder and William Swann- extravert, outgoing, or an introvert. Also Political office candidates. “mother of all biases.”
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Brain imaging (31): all subjects exhibited activity in their orbiotfrontal cortex (brain behind our eyes) while evaluating their candidate’s contradictions suggesting emotional processing.
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