Lilenfield Chapter 6 - L il lenfeld Chapter 6 A Lea...

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Lillenfeld Chapter 6 A. Learning (232): change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience. 1. Habituation (233): process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli. Ex. Snorers can sleep peacefully a. Simplest form of learning, and earliest form of learning in humans b. Can be found in lowly single celled amoeba. c. Apylysia : 5 inch sea slug. Good adaptive sense d. Sensitization (233): repeated exposure to stimuli can lead you to respond more strongly over time rather than habituation. When stimulus is dangerous or irritating. B. Classical Conditioning/Pavlovian/Respondent conditioning (234): form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response. By Ivan Pavlov. *Without classical conditioning, we couldn’t develop physiological associations to stimuli that signal biologically important events a. Conditioned stimulus (CS) [234]: initially neutral stimulus i. Ex. Pavlov- a metronome. Conditional because animal’s response to it is conditional {dependent} on learning b. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) [235]: stimulus that elicits an automatic response. Unconditional because responds to it all of the time/automatically i. Ex. Pavlov- Meat powder c. Unconditioned response (UCR) [235]: automatic response to a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learned. Animals don’t need to learn to respond to the UCS with the UCR. Produces the UCR without any training because it is a product of nature, not nurture i. Ex. Pavlov- salivation d. Conditioned response (CR) [235]: response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning. Contrast to UCR, CR is a product of nurture, not nature. i. Ex. Pavlov- dog salivates when it hears the metronome C. Automatic avoidance response a. Aversive conditioning (235): classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS b. Ex. David Lykken’s experiment. Psychopaths vs. non psychopaths- psychopaths tend to show weak classical conditioning to painful electric shocks.
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D. Classical conditioning occurs in 3 phases a. Acquisition (236): learning phase during which a conditioned response is established. Gradually learn the CR. i. The closer in time the pairing of CS and UCS, the faster learning occurs b. Extinction (236): gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. CR decreases in magnitude and eventually disappears when CS is repeatedly presented alone (without UCS) c. Spontaneous Recovery (237): sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus. Extinct CP reappears if the CS is presented again. i.
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Lilenfield Chapter 6 - L il lenfeld Chapter 6 A Lea...

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