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Lilenfield Chapter 9 - Lilenfeld Chapter 9 1 Intelligence 1...

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Lilenfeld Chapter 9 1. Intelligence 1. Intelligence quotient (354): IQ. Systematic means of qualifying differences among people in their intelligence. Average is 100. 1. Child prodigy: an individual who displays astounding intellectual achievements at an early age 1. Ex. Karl Friedrich Gauss- IQ= 180 2. Emotional reasoning: tendency to judge the validity of an idea by our emotional reactions to it. Must avoid e.r. or affect heuristic 3. The way we think about intelligence matters 1. Those who believe intelligence is a flexible process that can increase over time tend to take more academic risks 2. Boring’s dictum 1. By Edwin Boring. Intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure 3. Francis Galton 1. Hypothesis: intelligence is the by-product of sensory capacity. Most knowledge first comes through senses, vision and hearing. Therefore people with superior sensory capacities should acquire more knowledge 1. Falsified 4. Intelligence test (356): diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability 1. By Alfred Binet and Henri Simon 1. Higher mental processes: included reasoning, understanding, and judgment 5. Abstract thinking (356): capacity to understand hypothetical concepts rather than concepts in the here-and-now 6. Intelligence consists the abilities to: 1. Reason abstractly 2. Learn to adapt to novel environmental circumstances 3. Acquire knowledge 4. Benefit from experience 7. General intelligence (g) [357]: hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people. By Charles Spearman 1. Corresponds with “mental energy” and the strength of our mental engines 1. Some people have more “powerful” brains than others. More g 8. Specific abilities (s) [357]: particular ability level in a narrow domain. 9. Fluid intelligence (358): capacity to learn new ways of solving problems 1. Ex. First time we try to solve a puzzle 2. More likely to decline with age 3. More highly related to g 4. May better capture the power of the “mental engine” 10. Crystallized intelligence (358): accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time. Increases with age 1. Rely on this to answer questions such as “what is the capital of …” 2. **Knowledge from newly learned tasks “flows” into our long-term memories, “crystallizing” into lasting knowledge** 11. Multiple intelligences (358): idea that people vary in their ability levels across different domains of intellectual skill 1. According to this, concept of g is wrong/incomplete 2. Autistic savants: support for existence of multiple intelligences 1
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3. Existential intelligence: ability to grasp deep philosophical ideas, like meaning of life 4. Intelligence type: 1. Linguistic- speak and write well 2. Logico-mathematical- use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems, such as scientific questions 3.
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