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Psych Exam 1 Review - Psychology 270 Exam#1 Study Guide...

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Psychology 270 Exam #1: Study Guide Chapter 1: Defining Abnormality Key Terms: Abnormal psychology/psychopathology – the subfield of psychology devoted to the study of mental disorders Reliability – the consistency of a test, measurement, or category system Validity – the accuracy of a test measurement, or category system Precipitating causes – the immediate trigger or precipitant of an event Predisposing causes – the underlying processes that create conditions making it possible for a precipitating cause to trigger an event Reductionism – explaining a disorder or other complex phenomenon using only a single idea or perspective Natural categories – categories that usually work reasonably well in everyday life despite their lack of precision Key Ideas: Six Core Concepts 1. The importance of context in defining and understanding abnormality 2. The continuum between normal and abnormal behavior 3. Cultural and historical relativism in defining and classifying abnormality 4. The advantages and limitations of diagnosis 5. The principle of multiple causality 6. The connection between mind and body Five Commonly Used Criteria for Defining Abnormality 1. Help seeking 2. Irrationality/Dangerousness 3. Deviance 4. Emotional distress** 5. Significant impairment** Chapter 2: Explaining Abnormality Key Terms: Animism – belief in the existence and power of a spirit world Deinstitutionalization – the social policy, beginning in the 1960s, of discharging large numbers hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community Humours – four bodily fluids believed, by Hippocrates and Greek doctors, to control health and disease Hysteria – a term used for centuries to describe a syndrome of symptoms that appear neurological, but do not have a neurological cause (now called conversion disorder) Suggestion – the physical and psychological effects of mental states such as belief, confidence, submission to authority, and hope Paradigms – overall scientific worldviews, which, according to philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn, radically shift a various points in history Reductionism – explaining a disorder or other complex phenomenon using only a single idea or perspective Diathesis-stress model – the view that the development of a disorder requires the interaction of a diathesis (predisposing cause) and a stress (precipitating cause) General paresis – a disease, due to syphilis infection, that can cause psychosis, paralysis, and death Psychosocial dwarfism – a rare disorder in which the physical growth of children deprived of emotional care is stunted Biopsychosocial model – a perspective in abnormal psychology and integrates biological, psychological, and social components Correlation – a statistical term for a systematic association between variables
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Central nervous system (CNS) – the control center for transmitting information and impulses throughout the body, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord Neuron – an individual nerve cell Cortex
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