AnthroBio 364- Exam 2 Study Guide
What are the 6 essential nutrients?
FUNCTION: Energy Source
CONSTITUENT PARTS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
CALORIES: 1 kg of carbohydrates provides 4 Calories
DIGESTION: begins in the mouth with the secretion of saliva. Amylase partially breaks down
carbohydrates. Once they reach the stomach, all carbs except for glucose are broken down into
monosaccharides by enzymes. Go through the small intestine to the liver to tissues.
Carbohydrates are oxidized for energy
Glucose is converted to glycogen through glycogenesis
and stored in the muscles and liver for 72 hours
glycogen is converted to triglycerides (fatty
acids) and stored in the body as fat.
- simple sugar. Contains just one sugar molecule with equal numbers of carbon
and hydrogen molecules. Glucose (blood sugar). Fructose (found in fruits). Galactose (found in
milk). Mannose (found in plants).
Directly enter into the blood and then into the cells to be used as energy.
- two monosaccharides attached to form a larger one. Common forms= Sucrose
(Glucose + Fructose)- found in most foods containing carbs (beet and cane sugar, honey, brown
sugar). Maltose- found in cereals. Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)- found in milk.
Before they are absorbed into the blood, they must be broken down into their component
Lactose is absorbed by lactase (enzyme). It gets broken into galactose and glucose.
- Starch. Complex sugars consisting of long, interlocking chains of glucose units
Before they can be absorbed into the blood, must be broken down into dissacharides and then
Refined Carbohydrates (RC):
carbohydrates that have been processed. Include high
amounts of simple sugars that have been separated from their plant sources (i.e. sugar cane
and sugar beets).Found in: cakes, cookies, white bread, white rice, white pasta,doughnuts,
pastries, sugar-added cereals, soft drinks, sodas,sugars in syrups, and jams, fruits canned or
frozen in syrup or sugar, corn canned with preserves- requires less energy to break down,
increase hunger/appetite, easy to remove from system