EXAM 2 Study Guide - AnthroBio 364- Exam 2 Study Guide What...

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AnthroBio 364- Exam 2 Study Guide What are the 6 essential nutrients? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Proteins 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water Carbohydrates - FUNCTION: Energy Source CONSTITUENT PARTS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen CALORIES: 1 kg of carbohydrates provides 4 Calories DIGESTION: begins in the mouth with the secretion of saliva. Amylase partially breaks down carbohydrates. Once they reach the stomach, all carbs except for glucose are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes. Go through the small intestine to the liver to tissues. Carbohydrates are oxidized for energy Glucose is converted to glycogen through glycogenesis and stored in the muscles and liver for 72 hours glycogen is converted to triglycerides (fatty acids) and stored in the body as fat. Simple Carbs Monosaccharides - simple sugar. Contains just one sugar molecule with equal numbers of carbon and hydrogen molecules. Glucose (blood sugar). Fructose (found in fruits). Galactose (found in milk). Mannose (found in plants). Directly enter into the blood and then into the cells to be used as energy. Complex Carbs Disaccharides - two monosaccharides attached to form a larger one. Common forms= Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose)- found in most foods containing carbs (beet and cane sugar, honey, brown sugar). Maltose- found in cereals. Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)- found in milk. Before they are absorbed into the blood, they must be broken down into their component monosaccharides. Lactose is absorbed by lactase (enzyme). It gets broken into galactose and glucose. Polyssacharides - Starch. Complex sugars consisting of long, interlocking chains of glucose units Before they can be absorbed into the blood, must be broken down into dissacharides and then monossacharides. o Refined Carbohydrates (RC): carbohydrates that have been processed. Include high amounts of simple sugars that have been separated from their plant sources (i.e. sugar cane and sugar beets).Found in: cakes, cookies, white bread, white rice, white pasta,doughnuts, pastries, sugar-added cereals, soft drinks, sodas,sugars in syrups, and jams, fruits canned or frozen in syrup or sugar, corn canned with preserves- requires less energy to break down, increase hunger/appetite, easy to remove from system
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o Unrefined & Complex Carbohydrates Rich in Fiber found in whole-grain cereals, brown rice, popcorn, corn tortilla, apples, figs, banana, tangerine, corn, raw salad, broccoli, tomatoes with skin, potato with skins. NON REFINED CARBS- require more energy to break down and absorb, do not increase hunger, not as easy to remove from system- result in less caloric intake Fiber - polyssacharide- Cellulose- type of insoluble fiber- polysaccharide found in plants—makes up the structural part of leaves, stems, roots, seeds, and fruit coverings. Cannot be broken down by the enzymes of the small intestine, but is metabolized by the bacteria present in the large intestine. PROVIDES bulk and fiber necessary for the movement of the bowel contents. Types: cellulose, hemicellulose,
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2011 for the course ANTHRBIO 364 taught by Professor Frisancho during the Winter '10 term at University of Michigan.

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EXAM 2 Study Guide - AnthroBio 364- Exam 2 Study Guide What...

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