REVIEW SHEET - EXAM 1 REVIEW Order of Basic Events: Origin...

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EXAM 1 REVIEW Order of Basic Events: Origin of Universe 10-16 bya Origin of Earth 4.5-5 bya Life on Earth 4.5 bya Prokaryotic Cells Appear 2.8-3.5 bya Eukaryotic Single Cell Organisms Appear 1.5 bya Eukaryotic Multicellular Organisms Appear with sexual reproduction 510-590 mya Vertebrates Appear 500 mya First Land Fauna 400 mya Mammals Appear 240 mya Pangaea begins to split 225 mya Gondwanaland and Laurasia 135 mya Dinosaur Extinction/Mammalian Radiation 65 mya Purgatorius genus/earliest primate 60-63 mya o Notharctus ( Adapiformes )/ancestor to lemurs (strepsirhines) 55 mya o Early Tarsiformes 55 mya o Aegytopithecus /ancestor of haplorhines 30 mya Catopithcus /ancestor of Old World monkeys 30 mya Cebapithecus /ancestor of New World monkeys 12-16 mya Proconsul africanus /ancestor of hominoids/apes 18 mya Sivapithecus /ancestor of orangutans 8-12 mya Dryotpithecus /ancestor of great apes (gorilla, chimp, bonobo, human) 9-12 mya Sahelanthropus Tchadensis /early hominoid 7-8 mya Orrorin tugenensis /early hominoid 6 mya Ardipithecus ramidus /first definite bipedal hominoid 5.2-5.8 mya Australopithecines 3.5-5.2 mya o Robust Australopithecines Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus boisei o Gracile Australopithecines Australopithecus afarensis 3-4 mya Australopithecus africanus 3-3.5 mya Australopithecus garhi 2.5 mya Homo habilis /Olduwan tool technology 1.6-1.9 mya Homo erectus (and ergaster )/Acheulean tool technology 1.8 mya o Fire use o Hunting and gathering Neanderthals 400,000-600,000 ya Modern humans o 33,000-40,000 ya Chatelperronian tool technology o 12,000-14,000 ya rise of agriculture and herding Mammals: - Larger and more complex brains - Reproductive efficiency through extended prenatal development - Heterodontic dentition allowed increased nutrition
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- Endothermic regulation- allowed them to live in extreme temperatures - Mammory glands - Hair Primates: - Grasping hands - Opposable thumbs - Color vision - Nails instead of claws - 3D vision - Size and shape of teeth adapted to chewing and grinding (fewer teeth 2:1:2:3) - Large and complex brains: live in large, complex social groups - Generalizations about Primate Behavior : **(evolutionary reasons for these behaviors?) - Socially complex- large social groups, most sociable- based on kinship and relatives - Sharing food with mates only- males compete, females select - Longer maturation period- greater brain size - K-selection- more parental investment in offspring- ensures passing of traits in future generations - Folivores have larger group size Hypotheses for Primate Traits 1. Arboreal Adaptation - arboreal habitat had low light and abundance of predators, required binocular and color vision and 3D vision. Depth perception to judge the distance between trees. Color vision to judge the ripeness (nutritional quality) of food.
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REVIEW SHEET - EXAM 1 REVIEW Order of Basic Events: Origin...

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