studyguide3 - Review Sheet for Anthrbio 161 Exam 3 Make...

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Review Sheet for Anthrbio 161 Exam 3 Make sure to review how to calculate and interpret the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium equation Hominid evolution o What trait distinguishes hominids from other primates? bipedalism o What morphological adaptations are associated with this trait? Position of foramen magnum anterior (forward) placement Bicondular angle: resting the femur on its condyles, not exactly perpendicular; promotes energetic efficiency uses leg as pendulum Pelvis wider and shorter, “bucket” or “bowl” shaped; iliac blades are outward flared in comparison to chimp pelvises; iliac blades also have a more forward orientation Vertebral column S-shaped spiral column, not C-shaped as in chimps Big toe aligned with rest of toes o Australopithecines Age associated with specimens/How long ago? 3-4 MYA Geographic location Africa Morphological distinctions between robust and gracile variants Robust: o Sagittal crest o Pronounced brow ridges o Thick dental enamel o Large, flaring zygomatics (cheeks) o EVOLUTIONARY DEAD END Gracile: o More rounded cranial vault o Smaller molar o Smaller mandibles o CONTRIBUTED MORE TO EVOLUTION o Homo habilis Age associated with specimens/How long ago? 2.5 MYA Geographic location Africa Morphological characteristics
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Significant increase in brain size; compared with chimps, 450 cc-750 cc; greater increase in animal protein into diet Same stature as australopithecines
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studyguide3 - Review Sheet for Anthrbio 161 Exam 3 Make...

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