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Unformatted text preview: Anthrbio 161 Exam 4 Study Guide Blasts from the Past 1. Name the three components of Natural Selection as conceived by Darwin: Variation- genetic diversity Competition- selects some members of the variation to survive Hereditability- those organisms selected for will pass their genes on to the next generation 2. Define the following terms: Allele: alternative forms of one gene Chromosome and DNA: chromosome- stand of DNA DNA- what makes up genetic material Homozygote and heterozygote: homozygous- both alleles are the same- DD or rr heterozygote- Dr- one dominant and one recessive allele 3. Describe how the following factors can lead to changes in allele frequency within a population: Natural selection: some alleles wont be passed on because they will be selected against Gene flow: new alleles can be introduced from other populations Genetic drift: small population- certain alleles will be randomly lost Founders effect: 4. Hardy-Weinberg: Hate it or love it, but just know it. 5. Describe the following evolutionary processes: Adaptive radiation- creation of new species adapting to many niches Convergent evolution- 2 unrelated species develop similar traits Divergent evolution- 2 species that evolve from a single common ancestor 6. Mammals When did mammals begin to flourish? Cenozoic Era Name three characteristics of mammals. o warm-blooded o reproductive efficiency- birth live young o heteordontic teeth o more advanced CNS 7. Primates Name and describe the two major orders of primates. o Prosimians- proto- primates, less advanced, relied on sense of smell o Anthropoid Name three characteristics of primate adaptations to arboreal life. o color vision o grasping hands o forward facing eyes How does primate K-Selection relate to number of offspring and learning? reduces the number of offspring, but increase parental care and investment- longer childhood- more learning 8. Hominoid-Hominid Phase - Name, describe, and provide the date for one fossil species in this group. Sahelanthropus tchandensis- found in Chad, Central Africa- 7 and 6myo o more primitive traits than advanced traits small brain long flat nuchal plane w/ large external occipital crest canine breadth similar to chimps dental arch small, narrow, u-shaped some advanced traits- vertical face, thick brow ridge, premolars and morals smaller, large foramen magnum...
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