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Unformatted text preview: Systems Change in Systems Change in Juvenile Services Systems Change / Current Issues Systems Change / Current Issues General reform – Changes from the 1980s Continuum of care Wraparound program Disproportionate minority contact Tribal youth programs Internet crime / commercial sex exploitation http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/about/jobs.htm What is Disproportionate Minority What is Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)? The over representation of minority youths in the juvenile justice system relative to their representation in the population Disparity exists and gets worse at every point in the system African-American Youth at Each Stage of the Justice System in 1997 State Prison Adult Court Detained Arrested Population
0% 58% 46% 44% 26% 15%
20% 40% 60% 80% African Americans What causes DMC? What causes DMC? Structural inequity Intentional or unintentional bias at the point of arrest Intentional or unintentional bias at further points of contact Structural Inequity in Total Structural Inequity in Total Population Perception: Minority youth more likely to be at risk for delinquent behavior Reality: Selfreport data indicates that the disparities in the amount of crime committed between whites and African Americans are negligible Certain amount of delinquent behavior is common among all racial & ethnic groups Percentage of youth selfreporting drug Percentage of youth selfreporting drug use vs. arrest rates for drug crimes
8% 7% Self-reported crime rate 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% White African American 3% 1% 7% 7 6 Arresr rate for drug offenses (per 100,000 in general population) 5 4 3 2 1 0 White 2.4 6.1 0.50% AfricanAmerican 12 Graders Reported Using Cocaine 12 Graders Reported Using Crack Youths arrested for drug crimes Youth selfreporting weapons Youth selfreporting weapons possession vs. arrest rates Weapons Possesion Crimes
12% 10% Self-reported crime rate 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% White Race African American 10% 8% Weapons Possession Arrest Rates
1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1.3 0.5 White Race AfricanAmerican 1. Discretion at the Point of Arrest 1. Discretion at the Point of Arrest Deployment Discretion Warn or divert Cite and release Arrest Probation violation: issue a probation administrative sanction or arrest Further Points of Contact Further Points of Contact
1. released after being booked held for an intake probation officer recommends probation or detention After arrest: 2. district attorney 3. 4. public defender and defense advocates judge Detention Reform in Multnomah County Detention Reform in Multnomah County Alternatives to detention Risk assessment instrument (RAI) – Accessible & appropriate for minority youth – Old criteria: “good family structure” – New criteria : “an adult willing to be responsible for assuring the youth’s appearance in court” – Daily review & quality control Detention intake team At multiple points of contact At multiple points of contact At probation level At the judicial level – Sanctions grid for probation violations – Detention for violation of probation: approval from a supervisor & alternative placement committee – four halftime trial assistants – pretrial placement planning for indigent youth – diversity in the probation department Staff 2 problem areas: detention processing and Success with Detention Reform in Success with Detention Reform in Multnomah County police referrals Average daily admissions Annual admissions – 1993: 92 youths a day in secure detention – 2000: 33 – 1994: 1107 – 2000: 478 Success in a hostile political environment Elimination of most of the minority Elimination of most of the minority disproportion in referrals to detention
40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Black Hispanic White Total Reform: Reform: will not result in the eradication of racism, poverty, and other powerful social forces that contribute to disproportionate minority contact should seek to eliminate systemic bias so that the juvenile justice system does not exacerbate or contribute to the impact of those forces . . . What is needed for ongoing What is needed for ongoing reduction of DMC Authoritative leadership Explicit problem definition Action beyond training Technical assistance Collaborative change Individual agency change Continued engagement of local law enforcement ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2011 for the course FMSC 330 taught by Professor Grutzmacher during the Spring '09 term at Maryland.
- Spring '09