Lecture 34

Lecture 34 - Observe this area, considering what different...

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Unformatted text preview: Observe this area, considering what different climates Observe are likely to be present and what controls them are Dust storms on cti e dir ind W Tibet High mountains Africa Indian Ocean Ocean India Bangladesh Nutrient-rich Nutrient-rich water water Africa Indian Indian Ocean Ocean 13.00.a Flooding rivers Rain forests What is atmospheric pressure? Pressure decreases Pressure with altitude with Measuring pressure Measuring with a barometer with 01.04.a2 13.01.a Observe global wind patterns Sets up flow cells Cool air descends Hot air rises Prevailing Prevailing westerlies and easterlies easterlies Flow deflected Flow by Earth’s rotation rotation 13.01.c1 The Coriolis Effect Earth rotating Earth eastward eastward Air flowing toward Air poles moving faster than ground; appears to deflect to right to Faster Faster velocity near equator near Opposite in S. Opposite hemisphere hemisphere 13.01.c2 Observe how wind transports sediment and other Observe materials materials 13.02.a1 Dust Storms and Whirlwinds Sand and Sand dust storm originating from North Africa Africa Dust storm Dust in Southwest U.S. U.S. 13.02.b Whirlwind in Peru Sites Where Wind-Blown Material Is Deposited Sand Dunes 13.02.c Loess: Windblown Silt What determines whether water is solid (ice), liquid, or gas? Evaporation Evaporation and condensation condensation 13.03.a Formation of Formation snow or liquid from vapor heats the air the Melting of snow or Melting evap. of liquid cools air evap. How does water move between the surface and How atmosphere? atmosphere? Sunlight Sunlight drives system system Condensation Moisture Moisture carried by wind by Precipitation 13.03.b Evaporation Evaporation Consider how largescale atmospheric scale circulation might affect precipitation precipitation Dry More precipitation More where warm air rises and cools: Wet Dry Where does this occur? this Tends to be Tends dry where air descends: Wet Dry Dry Wet Where does this occur? occur? 13.03.c What is a hurricane? Warm, vaporrich air rises rich from ocean from Rising moist air cools, Rising vapor condenses to rain and heats the air. the 13.04.a-b Why do hurricanes Why rotate? rotate? Warm evaporating water is Warm the hurricane fuel. the Where and when do hurricanes occur? Coriolis effect Observe the motion of air and Observe water in a supercell thunderstorm and related tornado and Rising, rotating air 13.04.b Heavy rainfall Heavy and hail and Strong local Strong downdrafts downdrafts Microbursts Tornado as part of updraft Observe where tornadoes strike Tornado Tornado alley alley 13.04.b Observe Observe the main ocean surface currents currents Observe Observe where deep ocean currents flow flow 13.05.a-b How Ocean Currents Affect Temperatures on Land Warm current from tropics Prevailing easterlies bring Prevailing warm, moist air to land warm, Australia North North Atlantic currents currents Warm Gulf Stream Warm current current Prevailing Prevailing westerlies westerlies 13.05.c Observe how ocean currents affect precipitation on land Red: warm currents Cold Cold currents keep west coast drier coast Southern Africa Southern Blue: cold currents Warm, tropical Warm, currents make east coast wetter wetter 13.05.d South South Atlantic Ocean Ocean Indian Indian Ocean Ocean How a Monsoon Occurs Rising, heated air Rising, causes low pressure pressure Dry season Heavy Heavy precip. along mountain front front Rainy season Moist onshore Moist flow of air flow 13.06.a Some Causes of Drought Unusual shift in wind Unusual direction direction Persistent high Persistent pressure pressure 13.06.b Temporary change Temporary in ocean currents in Observe sea temperatures during El Niño and La Niña El Niño Warmer Warmer water extends to eastern Pacific Pacific La Niña Warmer Warmer water mostly in western Pacific Pacific 13.06.c Character and Distributions of Rain Forests 13.07.a-b High rainfall, High no freezing temps, rich in plants in Intertropical Convergence Zone June Canopy Understory December Forest floor Why Rain Forests Are Disappearing Logging Logging Mining Cattle Cattle Ranches Ranches Road Road Building Building Dam Dam Construction Construction Farming 13.07.c Observe locations of deserts and other arid lands 13.08.a Mojave Desert Sonoran Desert Settings of Deserts and Other Arid Lands Subtropical deserts: descending air Subtropical and high pressure and 13.08.c Rain shadow desert Subtropical Subtropical deserts deserts Continental desert Polar Polar deserts deserts Continental Continental deserts deserts Coastal Coastal desert desert Rain shadow desert Observe areas at risk for desertification Western U.S. Western and Great Plains Plains Sahel Middle Middle East East Australia 13.08.d1 Landscape Features Characteristic of Deserts Alluvial fans Desert washes Playas 13.09.a Dunes Satellite image: fans, washes, playas Features the Develop Over Time in Deserts Pediment Desert pavement Caliche 13.09.b Desert varnish Natural stains Evidence for Global Temperature Changes, Part 1 Borehole temperature Glacier length Tree-ring proxy 13.10.a Evidence for Global Temperature Changes, Part 2 Ice core proxy Coral proxy Comparing estimates 13.10.a Observe the interaction of sunlight with the Observe atmosphere, oceans, and land atmosphere, Solar Solar energy energy Infrared energy Energy Energy absorbed by atmosphere atmosphere Sunlight Sunlight reflected by clouds and particles particles Sunlight Sunlight reflected by land and oceans oceans Sunlight Sunlight reflected by atmosphere atmosphere Energy Energy absorbed by land and oceans oceans Energy absorbed Energy by clouds and particles particles 13.11.a Other Processes that Influence Atmospheric Temperatures Sun varies Sun in solar output over short and long time periods periods 13.11.a Variation from a Variation more circular to a less circular orbit over long times over Greenhouse Greenhouse gases influence how much heat is trapped trapped Greenhouse Gases and Temperature-Change Greenhouse Records from Ice Cores 13.11.a5 Is there a cause and effect relationship between temperature and CO2? temperature How Plate Tectonics Affects Climate Mountains influence Mountains regional climates Changes in seafloor spreading affect sea level spreading Volcanoes release gas Volcanoes and dust and 13.12.a Consider how climate might change as a plate moves Permian Permian (260 Ma) (260 North America America Eurasia Cretaceous Cretaceous (75 Ma) (75 a d Sea d Se In an Inllan A p M pal ou ac nt hi ai an ns Gondwana Neogene Neogene (20 Ma) (20 North North America America ta tall Coas s Coas ns ta ntaiin moun mou R ap sp id re sea a d fl in oo gr 13.12.b North North America America How Does Climate Affect Tectonics? Slopes reflect balance of Slopes uplift and erosion uplift Rate of erosion Rate related to climate, so affects height of uplift of Intense erosion may allow lateral movement Intense of material in Himalaya of 13.12.c Factors that Affect Where Life Can Exist Temperature Water 13.13.a Nutrients and energy Classification of Ecosystems This map combines factors to This represent ecosystems represent Blues: plant growth Blues: controlled by temperature controlled Greens: favorable to Greens: plant growth plant Reds: dry climates Dark greens: plant Dark growth limited by soils growth 13.13.b1 Some Geologic Controls on Ecology Mountains catch rainfall Flat areas produce soils Determines water flows Nutrients in rocks 13.13.c 2004 Hurricane Season 13.14.a Observe the changes from previous hurricane seasons Observe to the 2004 season to Atmospheric pattern from Atmospheric 1995 to 2003 1995 Atmospheric pattern in Atmospheric 2004 2004 13.14.b Other Factors that Produced the 2004 Hurricanes Ridge steered Ridge storms toward Florida Florida Unusually warm Unusually water off Florida water Ridge kept Ridge hurricanes in tropics in Strong upper Strong winds formed storms storms ITCZ: Intertropical convergence zone 13.14.c1 Investigation: Observe the Environments in These Areas C D I B H 13.15.a A E F: Stormdamaged trees G Observe these additional data Satellite current analysis Satellite wind data 31° 16° 2° 13.15.a Ocean-water temperatures and sea Ocean-water surface temperatures surface Show probable locations for rain forests (R), deserts Show (D), agricultural areas (A), and hurricane risk (H) (D), 13.15.a14 ...
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