GEOL final REVIEW

GEOL final REVIEW - Chapter 14 Shorelines what processes...

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Chapter 14 Shorelines – what processes effect them? Waves – generated by wind, can move sediment Rivers – deposit sediment, can form deltas Wind – can blow sand or sediment Faulting – raise or lower parts of land Changes in sea level leads to tidal flats – uncovered or flooded Currents – when water is driven in a certain direction Water side effects of shoreline appearance Strength of waves and tides Size and intensity of storms (steep = waves crash harder) Orientation of a coastline, dominant wave direction Can be affected by boulders or barrier reef etc Slope of sea floor Land slide effects of shoreline appearance Hard rock = rocky cliffs, soft rock/sediment = gentle sweeps Amounts and size of sediment available Coastlines undergoing uplift Climate -- wet climates have soil and vegetation, dry climates are the opposite
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Tides: cyclic changes in the height of the sea surface Main influence is the moon 2 high and 2 low in a 25 hour period spring tides and neap tides Bay of Fundy Waves Shorelines Shoreline landforms Shoreline living challenges Geologists shoreline studies Sea level changes Past glaciations evidence Glacier formation and movement Mountain glaciers Continental ice sheets Peripheral glacier features Glacial episodes West Antarctica melting
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13/12/2008 17:16:00 chapter 15 Section 1: What Physical Processes Affect Rocks Near the Surface? Physical Weather- breaks rocks into smaller fragments, which can then be moved by erosion. Joints- fractures or cracks in rocks. They can be formed in various ways: Pre-existing joints- joints formed at depth and are uplifted. More closely spaced joints promote rapid weathering. Expansion joints- form as a result of expansion due to cooling or a release of pressure from uplift. Exfoliation- expansion joints along topography as weight is unloaded. Joints affect the strength of a rock, and it’s resistance to weather and erosion (less joints are more resistant). What other physical processes loosen rocks? Burrowing organisms, plant roots (called root wedging), heating and cooling of rocks. Frost wedging- when water in a fracture freezes and expands. Mineral wedging- when water in fractures precipitates crystals. Fracturing of a rock and weather: The more fractures, the more surface area for weathering, and the faster it can occur. o Talus slopes- piles of angular blocks called talus that was physically weathered. o Sometimes physical weathering produces small chips from rocks with platy textures such as shale, slate, and schist. Section 2: Chemical Processes and Rocks Near the surface
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GEOL final REVIEW - Chapter 14 Shorelines what processes...

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